Wednesday, November 27, 2019

Harriet Essays - Interpersonal Relationships, Intimate Relationship

Harriet DEAR READER: Opposites do attract. Differences can draw us like a magnet to the other person. These same differences, however, may repel us later on. What initially attracts us and what later becomes the problem are usually one and the same. How does this work? If John feels a bit allergic to the high degree of togetherness and emotionality in his Italian-American family, he may be especially drawn to a woman like you, who models a position of emotional detachment and separateness. If you, for your part, are a bit allergic to the distance and reserve in your WASP family, you may be attracted to John's emotional and expressive style. But five years from now, he may complain that you're too cool and distant, and you may complain that he's too involved with his demanding family. Am I predicting a gloomy future for your marriage? Of course not. Dealing with differences is the central challenge in any intimate relationship. Some differences are bound to make us feel angry, isolated, or anxious at times; but it's important to keep in mind that differences are the only way we learn. If our intimate relationships were composed only of people identical to ourselves, our personal growth would come to an abrupt halt. What matters is that you and John love and respect each other. Along with your differences, I trust that you share important commonalties. Marriage works best when partners share deeply held beliefs and core values. But in any close relationship, differences will inevitably emerge?differences in our values, beliefs, priorities, and habits, as well as in how we manage anxiety and navigate family relationships. Talk openly with John about how your different ethnic backgrounds may shape your marriage. Relationships get into trouble whenever we deny differences (or exaggerate them, for that matter) or whenever we assume that our view of reality?or our way of being in the world?is the only correct one. Respecting differences is the greatest and most difficult of all human challenges DEAR HARRIET: My sexist husband and I have different views about rearing our son, who is 4 years old. I want my son to be able to cry and express his feminine Bibliography Italian-American family

Sunday, November 24, 2019

Atomic Number Definition - Chemistry Glossary

Atomic Number Definition - Chemistry Glossary The atomic number of a chemical element is the number of  protons in the nucleus of an atom of the  element. It is the charge number of the nucleus since neutrons carry no net electrical charge. The atomic number determines the identity of an element and many of its chemical properties. The modern periodic table is ordered by increasing atomic number. Atomic Number Examples The atomic number of hydrogen is 1; the atomic number of carbon is 6, and the atomic number of silver is 47, Any atom with 47 protons is an atom  of silver. Varying its number of neutrons changes its isotopes while changing the numbers of electrons makes it an ion. Also Known As: The atomic number is also known as the proton number. It may be represented by the capital letter Z. The use of capital letter Z comes from the German word Atomzahl, which means atomic number. Before the year 1915, the word Zahl (number) was used to describe an elements position on the periodic table. Relationship Between Atomic Number and Chemical Properties The reason the atomic number determines the chemical properties of an element is that the number of protons also determines the number of electrons in an electrically neutral atom. This, in turn, defines the electron configuration of the atom and the nature of its outermost or valence shell. The behavior of the valence shell determines how readily an atom will form chemical bonds and participate in chemical reactions. New Elements and Atomic Numbers At the time of this writing, elements with atomic numbers 1 through 118 have been identified. Scientists typically talk about discovering new elements with higher atomic numbers. Some researchers believe there may be an island of stability, where the configuration of protons and neutrons of superheavy atoms will be less susceptible to the quick radioactive decay seen in known heavy elements.

Thursday, November 21, 2019

In France, appropriate conduct, trust and understanding of social Essay

In France, appropriate conduct, trust and understanding of social status are vital factors for success - Essay Example International business management comprises learning different cultures of the nations where a company intends to enter. Cross-cultural management helps to gain understanding about business tactics, human personality and leadership/management style that are significant for possessing effective business relationships with people in foreign countries (Bowie, 2008). The paper describes the business environment and culture of France and China for conducting business of a retail fashion organisation in the United Kingdom named River Island. The objective of the paper is to recognise the cross-cultural aspects of China and France with respect to leadership style and business practices which need to be considered by River Island in order to conduct business in foreign nations. Furthermore, the paper analyses the business environment and legal structure of both nations for assessing the suitability of conducting business. Business Environment of France France is regarded as the international cultural capital. It is one of the biggest and most diverse nations in Europe. France is also recognised as a modern nation among the European countries with respect to technology and business. France has always been the core of international business and trade. France is an extremely consolidated nation. Among many larger cities in France, Paris plays a significant part with respect to governmental regulations and business opportunities. France has advanced rail network and structured road transport system that offer smooth access to major capitals and metropolises (Nouel, 2005). Economic Environment France is known as the world’s fifth biggest economy with respect to gross domestic product (GDP). In the year 2007, the GDP of France was almost â‚ ¬1892 billion and inflation rate was about 1.5%. In the year 2002, France had accepted Euro as its domestic currency (Moore Stephens International Limited, 2009). France is also considered as one of the biggest exporters of the world. In the year 2008, France had exported US$767 billion worth of goods (MGI World, 2009). France not only has progressive industrial economy, but also is advanced in automobile industry, aerospace, information technology, electronics, chemicals and fashion industry. France is one of the significant members of G8 leading industrialised nations (MGI World, 2009). Fashion Retail Industry of France France plays a vital role in catalysing enthusiasm about fashion all through the nation. The fashion industry of France has acquired its acceptability from high-end and high creative sector. The brand management capability, affluence and commercial aptitude of France gradually dribbled over the mass fashion retail market segment by motivating the appearance of international brands (Girod, 2012). In the year 2009, the total income of French apparel retail industry was worth US$48,956.4 million which accounted for compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 0.6% (Datamonitor, 2009). In order to

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

How did The Second World War affect America? Essay

Having been drawn into World War II by the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbour, America was inevitably altered in many ways by the wartime circumstances and the affects of which are still noticeably present today. The war induced economical, social and political reforms in America. America is one of the world’s great superpowers and with such massive territorial and economical resources she became the main source for arms and equipment flowing into Europe. Existing factories were adapted to cater for the demand for war machines and with this sudden influx of business, provided by the Allied war effort, America found herself in a wartime economic boom. More jobs were available due to the new demand and wages increased leading to a generally higher standard of living. With the primary focus on arms and weapons there was a shortage of consumer goods during the war but following that saw a return of consumer goods and mass exportation to Europe opening up a new market for commerce. To fund the initial production of the arms in demand federal taxes were significantly raised mainly in the form of income tax. Government spending has led to increased taxation remaining a permanent, long-term feature of the US government since WWII. Socially the war benefited the majority of black-Americans and women in America who before then, were normally classed below white males living in America. For example, restrictions were placed on blacks and women in America that made it hard to get a job or receive equal pay. Women were seen as housekeepers and were not considered as workers unless in extremely poor circumstances and un-married (even then women were not paid equally in comparison to men), for it was the men that supported their wives and household, alone. However with men being conscripted into the army during the war many positions in the labour work force were being deserted and if this continued there would not be enough workers and soldiers in order to maintain a consistent high rate of production and supply troops to fight a war. As a result women were brought in to replace those sent off to fight and gained adequately paid positions in factories and other jobs that were otherwise only available to men, therefore when the war ended the soldiers returned and found jobs were no longer as readily available as was previously, because women provided more competition and sexual discrimination started to diminish but it was by no means completely wiped out. By 1945 36% of the workforce was female and two thirds of these women stayed in employment after the war demonstrating a permanent social shift created by the war effort. Discrimination against African-Americans also began to subside slightly as President Roosevelt implemented the F.E.P.C. (Fair Employment Practices Committee), to end racial indiscrimination in the war industries, following the actions of A. Phillip Randolph in 1941. This was sparked off by the increased segregation of blacks and whites in the US armed forces despite the supposedly unified war effort and the fact that other countries did not implore segregated units. The black population were angry that their colour would instantly condemn them to low indignant lives. However during the war reforms were welcomed to certain extents and by 1945 blacks employed by the government rose from 60,000 to 200,000. Then without the intervention of the FEPC all three war services allowed black officers still however segregated but nevertheless improving standards between blacks and whites. It seems that the war did not have an active role in reforming the situation in America between blacks and w hites but it provided a form of passive provocation. With the increased need for workers and factories many cities became popular sites for those seeking employment such as the African-Americans and poor southern farmers. The Industrialisation of America because of the war effort requiring greater arms production and manufacturing of goods led to urbanisation in the late 1940s and 1950s and suburbs were inevitably formed; there became areas of great prosperity and others of poverty due to neglect by those who left for the industry. Politically the war had a significant impact on policies and the routes taken by the wartime presidents Roosevelt and, following on, Truman. Firstly FD Roosevelt was a Democrat and introduced an expensive New Deal policy, which was designed and hoped to bring America out of the depression however it came up against great opposition by many Republicans. To counter this threat he ran for the 1944 election with a more conservative Democrat running mate, Harry S. Truman in turn creating a more seemingly moderate approach, which later secured victory for Roosevelt in the election. Then after Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s death in April 1945, Truman became president and hoped to continue Roosevelt’s domestic policies. Both Roosevelt and Truman were fierce anti-communists and in 1947 during Truman’s term it was decided that in US interests the Marshall Plan and Truman Doctrine should be incorporated to keep the European market open for America’s capitalisation and therefore keep chances of communist take-overs minimal. Both policies were part of the idea of Containment and fed money into Europe in order to ensure its revival, which would then lead to American prosperity for consumer goods would be in demand and exports would be available but also to prevent communist expansion. Truman also tried to enforce the ‘Fair Deal’, which was similar to Rooselvelt’s new deal but less money was involved. This aimed to improve social security, provide full employment, increase the minimum wage, build more homes and secure employment equality for all races. This ambitious policy never really achieved its aims for the mostly Republican Congress largely opposed the Fair Deal due to its high expenditure and need for increased taxation. This led to Government control being reduced considerably as was introduced during the Depression and wartime. Socially America has changed considerably and sexual and racial discrimination has been tackled. Women in particular have been granted or have fought for the right to work with the fortunate circumstances of the war creating a definite social change. Also economically America has benefited for many of what were the Allied countries are still within a trading circle with the USA as its centre and looking at the more short-term benefits, America prospered with all the required arms production resting upon her factories. Politically taxes have remained high and Government power has been reduced but without the policy of Containment Eastern Europe may not have recovered with such effectiveness and America may have descended into another depression due to poor over-seas commerce.

Response to Post of Classmate on Education Assignment - 6

Response to Post of Classmate on Education - Assignment Example Therefore, in human resource development, the scholar-practitioner role is seen to be similarly applicable through being apprised with current and future trends in human resources management and ensuring that best practices are imbibed in their respective work settings. The research methodology disclosed for the planned study about understanding how the social media influences peoples perception of certain social issues (prejudice and xenophobia) is commendable. One honestly believes that the concern regarding biases could be addressed, depending on the manner in which interview questions are to be designed. Actually, a survey-questionnaire method could be used to precede the interview method. Through the survey-questionnaire method, both the researcher and the respondents’ demographic profile would not be seen as instrumental or contributory to the response. Likewise, the questions could be designed in the most appropriate manner to ensure objectivity. Any response that requires further clarification would be verified through the interview process. Utilization of a survey-questionnaire would enable reaching a wider range of respondents.

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Fine Dining & Culinary Management Thesis Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3250 words

Fine Dining & Culinary Management - Thesis Example In order for this to occur, however, one must know what the cultural differences are. Knowing cultural differences will assist the instructor to know why certain students behave differently from other students, and why certain cultures have different customs and ways of learning then do others. Another major focus that hospitality instruction should focus upon is using technology to assist in learning environments. On-line learning is, or should be, an important part of the learning culture. Other important aspects should include blogging, virtual learning and podcasting. Developing a culture of learning, therefore, must not only take into account different learning styles, but also different cultures, and must use different approaches to keep up with today's changing world. 1.1 Learning Styles Developing a culture of learning requires one to be sensitive to the fact that students have different styles of learning, and be able to adapt to this. Dale & McCarthy(2006) explain that the approaches to learning, with regards to the hospitality students they study, are activist, instrumentalist, autonomous and perplexed. The activist students are actively engaged in learning, and prefer a hands-on approach to their studies and wish to engage in practical and vocational experiences. As for lecturers, activist learners want an instructor that they can communicate with and relate to, as want their methods of assessment to be interactive, such as making presentations. The instrumentalist is the learner who is competitive, and their motivation for learning is getting the best grade. To this end, they are strategic. Their enthusiasm for learning is secondary to the desire to succeed and reach the external goal of getting a good grade. The autonomous learner is one who wants to learn on one's own, with minimal instruction or interaction with peers. The perplexed learner is the fourth kind of learner, and the perplexed learner is one who is confused about what needs to be don e to get a good grade. These learners need extra support and guidance (Dale & McCarthy, 2006, p. 51). Lashley (1999) states that the field of hospitality naturally attracts activist learners, as the students of hospitality tend to enjoy hands-on, concrete ways of learning and have lower preferences for theories and abstraction. To this end, he recommends an integrated approach, wherein the students learn theory and apply theory to concrete situations. The blocks that Lashley recommends include a block where students reflect on their own experiences in their work placement, exploring issues and reflecting and analyzing experiences. The next block is one where the students study and report on the service quality of major high street hospitality retail brands, acting as mystery diners and reporting, using the concepts and theories learned by instruction. The third block, Block C, provides an integrating context for the themes, concepts and theories learned. The assessment is based upon a hospitality hotel services context, â€Å"which provides both the setting for developing knowledge and understanding, and the scenario for a suite of assignments including the final examination† (Lashley, 1999, p. 180). Barron and Arcodia (2002) concur that the vast majority of hospitality students are activist, as they enjoy the hands-on approach. That said, they found that the

Friday, November 15, 2019

The Perception Of Listening And Interpersonal Communication English Language Essay

The Perception Of Listening And Interpersonal Communication English Language Essay Listen up! Are people really listening? What is listening and why is it important? This paper will address the viewpoint of listening skills and its outcome. Listening is an essential tool, which is one of the constructive aspects in the communication process, for communicating with other people. To listen well is a talent that is learned. However, for people to listen effectively, they would need to practice to obtain the skill. As with any new skill, learning to listen takes effort, attention, and practice (Stewart, 2006, p. 202).Listening skills allow people to make sense of and understand what another person is saying. In other words, listening skills allow people to identify with the meaning of what other people are talking about. Listening skills is a skill that is a useful sensible approach for doing what is appropriate when it comes to communicating with other people. In todays society, listening has become a modern way of life since people are always listening to something, such as the television, the radio, or merely a conversation with family and friends. Stewart (2006) comments that about 45 percent of our day are spent on listening (p. 199). However, the attention span for some people needs improvement, especially if they are easily distracted. Consistency should be a concept of listening and the only way to make this happen is by practice. In other words, people can develop a habit to be able to communicate their knowledge of what the other person is talking about. For example, if a speaker talks about the need to improve various types of environmental issues in our society, the listener or receiver should be able to execute his or her listening skills to clarify what was addressed by questioning and summarizing the speakers theory. The following characterizations are based on listening skills: awareness, interpretation, and questioning. Although developing listening skills is a matter of choice, it is imperative everyone accomplish effective listening habits to avoid misunderstanding in all relationships. The first aspect of listening is to learn how to listen effectively. In todays society, communicating appropriately has everything to do with listening effectively. Learning to be a good listener will help improve all relationships both professionally and personally. If people do not know how to listen well, they can easily be distracted and their mind will start to wander. Since listening plays an essential role in the communication process, developing listening skills are important because they will help interpret what the speaker is saying during feedback. In other words, the listener should be able to respond to what the speaker talked about for clarification purposes. There are three types of listening strategies that would be beneficial to ensure effective communication with other people. Hybels and Weaver (2007) state that active listening, critical listening, and empathic listening are three different tactics that can be used in diverse situations (p. 92). For instance, critical listeners focal point is to listen with determination and an open mind. They need to recognize and expect to learn something new from the speaker and ask questions about their viewpoints, such as an election. Critical listeners analyze the statement of all the members involved to decide who to vote for. In other words, critical listeners need to try to understand the speakers speech before they evaluate the information. A second instance is that of empathic listeners. Their center of attention involves listening with emotion-they actually understand and can relate to how the speaker is feeling. I actually had an overwhelming experience concerning this specific aspect of effective listening. For example, after my husband passed away two years ago, I expressed my emotions with my mom often. My mom always listened with full attention to my tone of voice and other relevant signals, such as body language and facial expression-she was able to see and feel the message I was sharing about the ordeal I was going through. My mom listened patiently and shared the pain and love I had for my husband. Moreover, my mom could relate to the emotions I was feeling about the passing of my husband, since she experienced similar emotions when her mom passed away in 1990. In other words, empathic listeners attempt to imagine what the speaker had gone through. Consequently, empathic listeners usually lead the conversation to self-disclosure, which is when people tell each other something personal they would not disclose to everyone (Hybels Weaver, 2007 p. 168). The final instance for listening types is that of active listeners, which entails reflection. Specifically, active listeners listen intensively to the speaker so that they would be able to express what was said, by paraphrasing or summarizing their statement. Furthermore, active listeners repeat in their own words what the speaker discussed for clarification purposes. Overall, people listen to acquire information and the impact of these listening techniques will certainly lead to thriving professional and personal relationships. The second aspect of listening is to avoid the barriers to efficient listening. Since words can be influential, there are some issues that may get in the way of listening effectively, such as bias, accents, and noise. These specific matters will result in poor listening communication because there are some people who are collective listeners because of their favoritism toward specific speakers; the language is not clear due to diverse accents, and depending on the surroundings, the interference of loud sounds. In addition, there are other barriers that can make listening difficult as well. Hybels and Weaver (2007) note that, most people are not ready to listen well, physically, mentally, and behaviorally and adds that some people are too lazy to listen, some avoid eye contact while listening, and some have a very short attention span (p. 88). Since these are some of the most mutual obstacles to effective listening, to learn how to listen will take practice and diligence to obtain concentration. However, there are some valuable strategies people could do to avoid listening barriers, such as preparing to listen with appropriate eye contact, concentrating on what the speaker is saying to determine the speakers meaning, and taking notes to consider what was discussed. In short, à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦savor the conversationà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ (Stewart, 2006 p. 201). Ideally, there are plenty of barriers that occur to block people from listening properly. Once awareness is accomplished, people will be able to avoid these barriers easily. The last aspect of listening is how to manage interpersonal conflict. Conflict occurs in most relationships-professional and personal and conflict can cause resentment and possibly the ending of a relationship as well. People embrace different ways to face conflict and to learn how to manage conflict involves being able to adhere the positive aspect of the relationship, which is to listen well. For example, I actually witnessed an incident when two doctors disagreed on a prognosis on a specific patient, which lead to an interpersonal conflict. After exchanging a few words, the doctors began to become agitated and verbally attacked each other. At this point, both doctors did not want to listen, instead, they both wanted to talk. The approach these doctors were using was not an effective way to handle conflict. Hence, it is obvious skillful communication was not enforced in this situation. Accordingly, all interpersonal interactions can learn how to improve their relationships by discussing how to find a resolution for their discord (Hybels Weaver, 2007 p. 202,203). In this professional environment, proper conflict management should have been applied because at this point, the companys image may be at stake. A final example of interpersonal conflict is lack of communication because lack of effective communication can result in interpersonal variation. For instance, a few months ago my relationship with a friend dispersed because of an emotional distance. The one -year date of his moms passing was approaching and my friend said that he had some personal issues to resolve and decided to try to handle them on his own. Since I was bothered by his unsettling actions, I continued to show my concern. Therefore, I suggested my friend talk about what was troubling him. In most situations, both partners would want to talk and not listen. In this case, I was willing to listen, but my friend refused to talk. In short, my friend was not ready to open up and listen to reason and continued with his depressing distance. Therefore, the relationship was dissolved because of the interaction conflict. Assuredly, to resolve interpersonal conflict in our society, an appropriate balance between personal ambition and optimistic conduct must be developed. Since the act of resolving conflict is a skill that can be taught, determination can help people blossom through their actions and help them receive respect in his or her life. Furthermore, there are effective communication methods to improve interpersonal conflict and to resolve interpersonal conflict following interaction techniques will be helpful: Encouragement-encourages each person to share their concerns Simplicity-ask questions to avoid misunderstandings Recognition-observe accurately to provide clear feedback However, conflict can lead to a deeper understanding and closeness between each person. In essence, [many interpersonal conflicts] can be traced to problems in listeningà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ (Hybels Weaver, 2007 p. 86). The main cause of interpersonal conflict is that both partners want to talk and no one is willing to listen. While resolving interpersonal conflict is a work-in-progress, people should start focusing on how to listen, which will eventually lead to constructive relationships. In summary, the stance of listening skills is important to analyze and review what the speaker discussed. In other words, when an interest is made known about what was conversed, the listener would be able to summarize the main points and supporting details of the speaker. Hence, listening is an active and productive process, which is an attribute people should practice in their professional and personal lives. Moreover, good listening skills builds a foundation as a means of learning that involves consistency in all areas in life. However, if people engage in poor listening habits, misunderstandings will arise and they will not understand the speaker sufficiently to respond efficiently. Since conflict materializes in both professional and personal relationships, it is best to have a face-to-face encounter because each person can benefit by enhancing their listening habits, such as eye contact and body language. Depending on the situation, the three learning styles, active listening, critical listening, and empathic listening should suffice for effective communication. On a final note, while listening skills consist of paying attention to words and interpreting those spoken words correctly, people can develop a creative character as they express such a rewarding attribute. In addition, when people gain listening skills, it is an impressive tool for learning new concepts about other people. Above all, the perception of listening is his or her personal choice if they decide to be an effective interpersonal communicator.

Tuesday, November 12, 2019

How did The Second World War affect America? Essay

Having been drawn into World War II by the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbour, America was inevitably altered in many ways by the wartime circumstances and the affects of which are still noticeably present today. The war induced economical, social and political reforms in America. America is one of the world’s great superpowers and with such massive territorial and economical resources she became the main source for arms and equipment flowing into Europe. Existing factories were adapted to cater for the demand for war machines and with this sudden influx of business, provided by the Allied war effort, America found herself in a wartime economic boom. More jobs were available due to the new demand and wages increased leading to a generally higher standard of living. With the primary focus on arms and weapons there was a shortage of consumer goods during the war but following that saw a return of consumer goods and mass exportation to Europe opening up a new market for commerce. To fund the initial production of the arms in demand federal taxes were significantly raised mainly in the form of income tax. Government spending has led to increased taxation remaining a permanent, long-term feature of the US government since WWII. Socially the war benefited the majority of black-Americans and women in America who before then, were normally classed below white males living in America. For example, restrictions were placed on blacks and women in America that made it hard to get a job or receive equal pay. Women were seen as housekeepers and were not considered as workers unless in extremely poor circumstances and un-married (even then women were not paid equally in comparison to men), for it was the men that supported their wives and household, alone. However with men being conscripted into the army during the war many positions in the labour work force were being deserted and if this continued there would not be enough workers and soldiers in order to maintain a consistent high rate of production and supply troops to fight a war. As a result women were brought in to replace those sent off to fight and gained adequately paid positions in factories and other jobs that were otherwise only available to men, therefore when the war ended the soldiers returned and found jobs were no longer as readily available as was previously, because women provided more competition and sexual discrimination started to diminish but it was by no means completely wiped out. By 1945 36% of the workforce was female and two thirds of these women stayed in employment after the war demonstrating a permanent social shift created by the war effort. Discrimination against African-Americans also began to subside slightly as President Roosevelt implemented the F.E.P.C. (Fair Employment Practices Committee), to end racial indiscrimination in the war industries, following the actions of A. Phillip Randolph in 1941. This was sparked off by the increased segregation of blacks and whites in the US armed forces despite the supposedly unified war effort and the fact that other countries did not implore segregated units. The black population were angry that their colour would instantly condemn them to low indignant lives. However during the war reforms were welcomed to certain extents and by 1945 blacks employed by the government rose from 60,000 to 200,000. Then without the intervention of the FEPC all three war services allowed black officers still however segregated but nevertheless improving standards between blacks and whites. It seems that the war did not have an active role in reforming the situation in America between blacks and w hites but it provided a form of passive provocation. With the increased need for workers and factories many cities became popular sites for those seeking employment such as the African-Americans and poor southern farmers. The Industrialisation of America because of the war effort requiring greater arms production and manufacturing of goods led to urbanisation in the late 1940s and 1950s and suburbs were inevitably formed; there became areas of great prosperity and others of poverty due to neglect by those who left for the industry. Politically the war had a significant impact on policies and the routes taken by the wartime presidents Roosevelt and, following on, Truman. Firstly FD Roosevelt was a Democrat and introduced an expensive New Deal policy, which was designed and hoped to bring America out of the depression however it came up against great opposition by many Republicans. To counter this threat he ran for the 1944 election with a more conservative Democrat running mate, Harry S. Truman in turn creating a more seemingly moderate approach, which later secured victory for Roosevelt in the election. Then after Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s death in April 1945, Truman became president and hoped to continue Roosevelt’s domestic policies. Both Roosevelt and Truman were fierce anti-communists and in 1947 during Truman’s term it was decided that in US interests the Marshall Plan and Truman Doctrine should be incorporated to keep the European market open for America’s capitalisation and therefore keep chances of communist take-overs minimal. Both policies were part of the idea of Containment and fed money into Europe in order to ensure its revival, which would then lead to American prosperity for consumer goods would be in demand and exports would be available but also to prevent communist expansion. Truman also tried to enforce the ‘Fair Deal’, which was similar to Rooselvelt’s new deal but less money was involved. This aimed to improve social security, provide full employment, increase the minimum wage, build more homes and secure employment equality for all races. This ambitious policy never really achieved its aims for the mostly Republican Congress largely opposed the Fair Deal due to its high expenditure and need for increased taxation. This led to Government control being reduced considerably as was introduced during the Depression and wartime. Socially America has changed considerably and sexual and racial discrimination has been tackled. Women in particular have been granted or have fought for the right to work with the fortunate circumstances of the war creating a definite social change. Also economically America has benefited for many of what were the Allied countries are still within a trading circle with the USA as its centre and looking at the more short-term benefits, America prospered with all the required arms production resting upon her factories. Politically taxes have remained high and Government power has been reduced but without the policy of Containment Eastern Europe may not have recovered with such effectiveness and America may have descended into another depression due to poor over-seas commerce.

Sunday, November 10, 2019

Values and Ethical Beliefs Based on Principles

Values and ethical standards play a very important role in our daily lives at home and work because of what we personally believe in. Values are things that we feel that have an important meaning in our lives. Ethics are the standards of behavior of what our society appears to believe what is right and wrong. My individual values and ethic have slowly developed due to my own personal life’s experiences with family, education, and work. In my reflection paper I will discuss my own personal values, morals, and ethics and relate it to my last job when I was working for a hospital in Arizona. I will incorporate my experience and analyze my moral and ethical principles in an organization evaluation of strengths and weaknesses using detailed examples of circumstances and contexts from the knowledge I have learned so far in my course study with Personal and Organizational Ethics. My personal values play a very important role in my life and they all have to do with what is most important to me. The things that I value the most are my family, religion, education, and my work. Family and religion are my two most important values that I believe to be very important in my life because family is where I have learned most of what and who I am today with my prioritizing my values, ethical and moral standards. My parents brought me up to respect and value family, religion, education, and never to take work for granted. I have had the pleasure of experiencing my parents love and support in all my decisions as an adult. Their love and moral guidance, I believe has helped me set my values and ethical standards. Moral standards include the norms we have about the kinds of actions we believe are morally right and wrong as well as the values we place on the kinds of objects we believe are morally good and morally bad (Velasquez, 2006). I only want others around me to be proud of who I am and what kind of moral and ethical decisions I make not only for me, my family but for my co-workers as well. In the future, if I am to be placed in a supervisor or management position I would want others to respect me due to how I handle certain situations with the best experience in making ethical, and moral decisions not only for them but for the company we work for. In my personal vision and mission statement I believe in honesty and truth. Not only do I believe in my own statement but I believe that businesses should focus on three different kinds of issues: systemic, corporate, and individual. According to Velasquez, 2006 p. 4, a Systemic issues in business ethics are ethical questions raised about the economic, political, legal, and other social systems or institutions within which businesses operate. This would touch on how a business operates when making decisions morality of capitalism, law, regulations, industrial structures, and social practices. Money should never get in the way of making the right decision for oneself or for one’s employer. I believe in the saying, †Å"What goes around will come around. † If I lie, cheat, or steel; it will come around and bite me in the behind ten times greater. If I stand up for the truth and work honestly at my job it will find me later down my life’s path and bless me ten times greater. My personal impression of what I would like others to view me to be in the future when I am a manager is someone that everyone looks up to for advice because they see how open, honest, and my moral along with my ethical reasoning’s are followed by a very strict code of ethics. As a future manager I want to follow and respect company’s policy guidelines and help others know that by doing this you can make a difference in people’s lives and even possibly save them from being fired, fined, and/or imprisoned. I think this is where the ethics of corporation come into play. Instead I want to help get them that promotion or raise they deserve. I’m all about helping others and myself to make a positive change in their values, morals, and ethical decisions based on holding to a code of ethics that is going to help keep principles in balance with today’s’ hard ethical decisions with companies that are located all geographically around the world. I worked as a clerk in the administrational department for five years in one the largest hospitals in Arizona I had the opportunity to experience many situations when dealing with moral and ethical decisions. One example was when I was supervising seven other employees in the administration department. We would take patients personal information such as their current home, work, employment, and insurance data and put it into a personal information program and file it for hospital records. I was also in charge of making sure the patient’s medical insurance were up to date, current, and proper medical billing was accurately inputted into the patient’s records. Once the patient left I would be in charge to take co-pays and then mail them bill for everything that was done during the visit. Now once in a while when a patient left and stopped by my window to check out they would ask questions and I would answer to the best of my ability without giving false or inaccurate information. If you couldn’t guess, most of the questions had to do with money and how much it was going to cost them and if their medical insurance was going to pay for the hospital bill. I had very little knowledge my first year working in the administration and billing department but as I got very familiar with medical terminology and billing codes I could see some discrepancy in how or what was being billed to their records. For example a person that had come into the emergency room for left ankle pain would most likely get a left ankle extra. I would take all their personal information down and of course most importantly their medical insurance information and put it in our data program. After two weeks they would receive their bill in the mail. Sometimes the insurance would pay for the entire cost but some insurance would not so this would put the responsibility of the patient to pay the hospital. Well, I was the one that patients would come and talk to and sit down with and put a payment plan together. They would bring in their bill and we would set out a billing plan. A few people that would request to see their medical records and reports because they just could not believe how expensive their hospital visit added up. Well, in many cases I found that customers disputed their bills because they believed that there was incorrect billing cost. Someone was putting in extra data that was not being done to the patient. Earlier I mentioned a patient that came in for left ankle pain and the doctor ordered one x-ray. Now this doesn’t sound too expensive but patients forget that they are also getting billed for other things than just one x-ray. The hospital will bill you for care by the doctor, nurses, x-ray tech, administration, x-ray machine, materials and products they use to service your needs. After explaining this to a patient most of them would not argue and then see that there is a bigger picture then just getting billed for one x-ray. However, there were a handful of patients that didn’t buy all our billing excuses. They wanted to see their medical records in front of them and see what was charged to their personal profile. This is when a code of ethics comes into play and what I didn’t understand back then from what I now understand today because of the knowledge I have learned from my current class in Personal and Organizational Ethics. There were people working in the billing department that would add on false charges to patient’s accounts just so that their bill would be high enough that insurances would be liable to take on cost to pay the hospital. There are insurances that will not cover cost if the cost does not reach a certain price and the hospital loses out on what percentage should be paid by insurance companies and would solely rely on patients to pay for the care that was given to them. When I was working in the billing department there was about 70 percent of patients do not pay their medical bills to the hospital and if they do it takes years and even decades for them to pay it off because they are only making the required minimum payment amount to the hospital. They work the system this way so they do not get sent to collections or damage their personal credit. If insurance companies or patients do not pay medical bills then the hospital could be at risk and could possibly result in future threats of closing down and putting hundreds of employees out of work. If I was managing an organization I would hope that my social responsibilities would be based on a specific utilitarian principle. Utilitarian principles require that managers pursue those goals that will produce the greatest social benefits and the least social harm (Velasquez, 2006). I would want to conduct business and perform at a level that would be socially and economically beneficial to my organization. My responsibilities would require me to make decisions that would work best for my company and the employees; making sure that no physical or financial harm would come to either one of them and to make sure that the produced goods are being met according to standard. If there would be a situation that would put myself, the company, or employees into a social or economical harm I would do my best to find an effective way to achieve the responsibilities that were given to me because of my position as a manager. Another responsibility that I believe is very important that is required as a manager is to have is the ability to do performance appraisals. It is an important part in the career development. One must obtain, analyze, and record information about the approximant worth of an employee to the organization. In my current job right now, I work at a local bank and my manager sits down with us every 6 months and does a performance appraisal. This is when I, the employee gets evaluated on my personal strengths and weakness. It is also a time for possible promotions, recognition, or the need for more training. In my opinion this is a very effective way that management can relay information back to their employees on how they are doing and what they expect from their employees to make their organization the best not only for themselves but for the entire company. If I was to analyze my previous organization I worked for back in Arizona on an ethical perspective when it came to finding out that extra charges were being inputted into patients billing records I would have to say that it morally and ethically wrong. If the hospital did not input extra charges then the patient’s insurances would not cover a certain percentage of the bill, so therefore the patient would have to pay out of pocket due to their own insurances not covering the cost. The hospital would solely rely on the patient to pay the bill however, because of past experiences the hospital has a good impression that the patient(s) will not pay back the hospital for the services that were provided. Is it morally ethical that the billing department put extra charges on a patient’s records when those procedures were not performed on the patient while they visited; only to help the patient not pay out of pocket so that their insurance would cover the cost of health care. I can see how the hospital is trying to prevent losses by adding on enough charges to the patient’s records so that the insurance would cover the cost instead of the patient going into debt; and therefore limiting the risk that the hospital may go bankrupt by never getting paid due to the patient unable to pay the bill. I have come to know and realize that if I am ever to be placed into a management position I want to portray a positive moral and ethical example to my company, co-workers, and others around me like my friends and family. I believe that there are principles that need to be followed and respected based on moral ethics and how they can relate to a business. In my opinion I believe that dealing with ethics in a business perspective I am following a code of ethics of what is right and not what is wrong. Ethical means accepted standards in terms of your personal and social welfare; what you believe is right (Velasquez, 2006). I may feel differently than another manager who is dealing with the same situation but we both choose to ethically make different actions and decisions base on our own experience and perspective of what is right; however, it doesn’t mean either one of us is wrong. Moral standards include the norms we have about the kinds of actions we believe are morally right and wrong as well as the values we place on the kinds of objects we believe are morally good and morally bad (Velasquez, 2006). For example my moral standards are to tell the truth and to protect innocent people. If my company wants me to lie about a finding on a report; I know that if I do this then I am not following my personal moral standards. Another example is if I know that my company is not disclosing any possible danger or harm to their employees due to the products or equipment that is toxic to their health they are using; then I know that I am not following my moral standards. In too many cases I find that what goes around will come back around. You can only through dirt over it for so long because the rain is going to come and clear away the findings. The truth will always come out sooner or later, and then what will others think of you for making unethical decisions based on moral standards they thought you had and lived by. However, it is possible that I allow myself to lower my moral standards due to unethical persuasions that have come from a higher threatening position that puts pressure on me. Therefore a decision or action could be forced upon me which is an example of nonmoral standards. According to Velasquez (2006), nonmoral standards can be contrasted with standards we hold about things that are not moral. For example my company may threaten to replace me if I do not do what is requested by them. It is possible that I could be persuaded to make a nonmoral decision over my moral standards based on examples like my job is at risk, my pay is good, I have bills and a mortgage, or I have a family to provide for. Nonmoral standards are the standards by which we judge what is good or bad and right or wrong in a nonmoral way (Velasquez, 2006). This is one example of my moral philosophies and ethical principles that I would not like to experience future management decision. Nor would I want to hold onto these kinds of standards in an organization I would be working for now or in the future. I find this to be a very weak characteristic that only hurts my organization reputation, me, and others that I may be leading moral and ethical examples for them to follow. We need to lead by examples in order to continue to make ethical business decisions. In order to change bad management habits or organizational conditions one must realize that there are areas that need improvement and then a plan needs to be developed. In my previous job working in the medical field for over 5 years I experienced highs and lows in regards to how management handled certain situations. Training new employees was something that needed to be addressed. Many new hires were lueless with policies and procedures. They had no experience or skills with the technology that the administrator department used. New employees were not properly trained. They were told and showed one time this is how we take patient’s information, insurance cards and put it into the data system. They missed vital information that was almost impossible to get once the patient left the hospital’s facility and insurances were not notified with in a proper time frame of the patient’s visit. My manager would find missing information and sit one by one and lecture new employees how they were not doing their job right; this sometimes lead to employees quitting and complaints to higher personal that the administration department was not properly collecting the right information from patients. Instead of lecturing new employees and making them feel bad for not doing their job correctly due to lack of proper and adequate training I would set a plan in action to train new employees and set up performance evaluations. My suggestion was to place new employees in a class for at least 1 week prior from starting and have them practice hands on training with our computer system we used when taking patient’s vital information. As a manager I would try to find ways to keep my employees instead of losing them due them being frustrated with not understanding the importance of collecting accurate data on patients when entering into the hospital. Also I found that when my manager would sit most of her employees down in her office she was rude, downgrading, and belittling most of them. When conducting a performance evaluation it would allow the manager and the employee to sit down and talk about what needs to be improved and also what areas have been met. In the five years I worked for this organization, not one time did I get any kind of praise or recognition. Going forward when I become a manager I know how important it is to express to my employees how much they are worth to me and the organization. I would suggest that the management board come together at lease quarterly and do something for their employees like providing a group lunch every quarter to show their appreciation or perhaps allowing the top employees to take off an hour early with pay. There are many ways to show an organization appreciates their employees like a thank you card, or a certificate to a restaurant. It is our job as managers to recognize the hard workers and appraise them once in a while for their commitment and hard work toward our organization. We are a team and one annot get the job done without the other and there is no position better than the other. In a business perspective we’ve seen that values and moral standards play a big role in how we make decisions on a daily basis. We base our values and morals on the importance of what we feel are ethically right and wrong. Our society that we live in is what helps us develop our ethics and keeps our belief strong with what is right, wrong, goo d and evil. My previous work experience and education has helped me develop my own moral standards. In this reflection paper I have discussed my own personal values, morals, and ethics and relate it to my last job when I was working for a hospital in Arizona. I have given examples of what kind of management skills I want to improve on and continue to develop for my future organization I will one day work for. I’ve realized that I must stand strong with my moral and ethical principles in order to be a good manager who will lead by great examples and help other follow in a positive way to use their moral and ethical principles when making important and vital decisions for an organization. I’ve used this course of study in Personal and Organization Ethics to help me evaluate the strengths and weaknesses and I’ve given examples using detailed circumstances and contexts from the knowledge I have learned so far. References Velasquez, M. (2006). Business Ethics: Concepts and Cases (6th ed. ). Upper Saddle River: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Friday, November 8, 2019

Summary of the Russian Civil War

Summary of the Russian Civil War Russia’s October Revolution of 1917 produced a civil war between the Bolshevik government – who had just seized power - and a number of rebel armies. This civil war is often said to have started in 1918, but bitter fighting began in 1917. Although most of the war was over by 1920, it took until 1922 for the Bolsheviks, who held the industrial heartland of Russia from the start, to crush all opposition. Origins of the War: Reds and Whites Form In 1917, after the second revolution in one year, the socialist Bolsheviks had seized command of Russia’s political heart. They dismissed the elected Constitutional Assembly at gunpoint and banned opposition politics; it was clear they wanted a dictatorship. However, there was still stiff opposition to the Bolsheviks, not least of which from the right-wing faction in the army; this began to form a unit of volunteers from hardcore anti-Bolsheviks in the Kuban Steppes. By June 1918 this force had survived great difficulties from the infamous Russian winter, fighting the ‘First Kuban Campaign’ or the ‘Ice March’, a near continuous battle and movement against the Reds that lasted over fifty days and saw their commander Kornilov (who may have attempted a coup in 1917) killed. They now came under the command of General Denikin. They became known as the ‘Whites’ in contrast to the Bolsheviks ‘Red Army’. On the news of Kornilovâ€⠄¢s death, Lenin announced: â€Å"It can be said with certainty that, in the main, the civil war has ended.† (Mawdsley, The Russian Civil War, p. 22) He could not have been more wrong. Areas on the outskirts of the Russian empire took advantage of the chaos to declare independence and in 1918 almost the whole periphery of Russia was lost to the Bolsheviks by localized military revolts. The Bolsheviks stimulated further opposition when they signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with Germany. Although the Bolsheviks had gained some of their support by pledging to end the war, the terms of the peace treaty – which gave substantial land to Germany – caused those on the left wing who remained non-Bolshevik to split away. The Bolsheviks responded by expelling them from the Soviets and then targeted them with a secret police force. In addition, Lenin wanted a brutal civil war so he could sweep away the substantial opposition in one bloodletting. Further military opposition to the Bolsheviks also emerged from foreign forces. The Western powers in World War 1 were still fighting the conflict and hoped to restart the eastern front in order to draw German forces away from the west or even just stop the weak Soviet government allowing Germans free reign in the newly conquered Russian land. Later, the allies acted to try and secure the return of nationalized foreign investments and defend the new allies they’d made. Among those campaigning for a war effort was Winston Churchill. To do this the British, French and US landed a small expeditionary force at Murmansk and Archangel. In addition to these factions, the 40,000 strong Czechoslovak Legion, which had been fighting against Germany and Austria-Hungary for independence, was given permission to leave Russia via the eastern fringe of the former empire. However, when the Red Army ordered them to disarm after a brawl, the Legion resisted and seized control of local facilities including the vital Trans-Siberian Railway. The dates of these attacks – May 25th, 1918 – are often incorrectly called the start of the Civil War, but the Czech legion did swiftly take a large territory, especially when compared to the armies in World War 1, thanks to seizing almost the entire railway and with it access to vast areas of Russia. The Czechs decided to ally with anti-Bolshevik forces in the hope of fighting against Germany again. Anti-Bolshevik forces took advantage of the chaos to coalesce here and new White armies emerged. The Nature of the Reds and Whites The ‘Reds’ - the Bolshevik-dominated Red Army, which was hastily formed in 1918 - were clustered around the capital. Operating under the leadership of Lenin and Trotsky, they had a uniform agenda, albeit one that as the war continued. They were fighting to retain control and keep Russia together. Trotsky and Bonch-Bruevich (a vital ex-Tsarist commander) pragmatically organized them along traditional military lines and used Tsarist officers, despite socialist complaints. The Tsar’s former elite joined in droves because, with their pensions canceled, they had little choice. Equally crucially, the Reds had access to the hub of the rail network and could move troops around quickly, and controlled the key supply regions for both men and material. With sixty million people, the Reds could muster greater numbers than their rivals. The Bolsheviks worked with other socialist groups like the Mensheviks and SRs when they needed to, and turned against them when the chance w as there. As a result, by the end of the civil war, the Reds were almost entirely Bolshevik. On the other hand, the Whites were far from being a unified force. They were, in practice, comprised of ad hoc groups opposed to both the Bolsheviks, and sometimes each other, and were outnumbered and overstretched thanks to controlling a smaller population over a huge area. Consequently, they failed to pull together in a unified front and were forced to operate independently. The Bolsheviks saw the war as a struggle between their workers and Russia’s upper and middle classes, and as a war of socialism against international capitalism. The Whites were loath to recognize land reforms, so didn’t convert the peasants to their cause, and were loath to recognize nationalist movements, so largely lost their support. The Whites were rooted in the old Tsarist and monarchical regime, while Russia’s masses had moved on. There were also the ‘Greens’. These were forces fighting, not for the reds of the whites, but after their own goals, like national independence – neither the Reds or Whites recognized breakaway regions - or for food and booty. There were also the ‘Blacks’, the Anarchists. The Civil War Battle in the civil war was fully joined by the middle of June 1918 on multiple fronts. The SRs created their own republic in Volga – ‘Komuch’, aided greatly by the Czech Legion - but their socialist army was beaten. An attempt by Komuch, the Siberian Provisional Government and others in the east to form a unified government produced a five-man Directory. However, a coup led by Admiral Kolchak took it over, and he was proclaimed Supreme Ruler of Russia (he had no navy). However, Kolchak and his right-leaning officers were highly suspicious of any anti-Bolshevik socialists, and the latter were driven out. Kolchek then created a military dictatorship. Kolchak was not put in power by foreign allies as the Bolsheviks later claimed; they were actually against the coup. Japanese troops had also landed in the Far East, while in late 1918 the French arrived through the south in the Crimea and British in the Caucuses. The Don Cossacks, after initial problems, rose and seized control of their region and started pushing out. Their siege of Tsaritsyn (later known as Stalingrad) caused arguments between the Bolsheviks Stalin and Trotsky, an enmity which would greatly affect Russian history. Deniken, with his ‘Volunteer Army’ and the Kuban Cossacks, had great success with limited numbers against larger, but weaker, Soviet forces in the Caucasus and Kuban, destroying a whole Soviet army. This was achieved without allied aid. He then took Kharkov and Tsaritsyn, broke out into Ukraine, and began a general move north towards Moscow from across large parts of the south, providing the greatest threat to the Soviet capital of the war. At the start of 1919, the Reds attacked Ukraine, where rebel socialists and Ukrainian nationalists who wanted the region to be independent fought back. The situation soon broke down into rebel forces dominating some regions and the Reds, under a puppet Ukrainian leader, holding others. Border regions like Latvia and Lithuania turned into stalemates as Russia preferred to fight elsewhere. Kolchak and multiple armies attacked from the Urals towards the west, made some gains, got bogged down in the thawing snow, and were pushed well back beyond the mountains. There were battles in Ukraine and surrounding areas between other countries over territory. The Northwestern Army, under Yudenich – very skilled but very small - advanced out of the Baltic and threatened St. Petersburg before his ‘allied’ elements went their own way and disrupted the attack, which was pushed back and collapsed. Meanwhile, World War 1 had ended, and the European states engaged in foreign intervention suddenly found their key motivation had evaporated. France and Italy urged a major military intervention, Britain and the US much less. The Whites urged them to stay, claiming that the Reds were a major threat to Europe, but after a series of peace initiatives failed the European intervention was scaled back. However, weaponry and equipment were still imported to the Whites. The possible consequence of any serious military mission from the allies is still debated, and Allied supplies took a while to arrive, usually only playing a role later in the war. 1920: The Red Army Triumphant The White threat was at its greatest in October 1919 (Mawdsley, The Russian Civil War, p. 195), but how great this threat was is debated. However, the Red Army had survived 1919 and had time to solidify and become effective. Kolchak, pushed out of Omsk and vital supply territory by the Reds, tried to establish himself at Irktusk, but his forces fell apart and, after resigning, he was arrested by left-leaning rebels he’d managed to totally alienate during his rule, given to the Reds, and executed. Other White gains were also driven back as the Reds took advantage of overreaching lines. Tens of thousands of Whites fled through the Crimea as Denikin and his army were pushed right back and morale collapsed, the commander himself fleeing abroad. A ‘Government of South Russia’ under Vrangel was formed in the region as the remainder fought on and advanced  out but were pushed back. More evacuations then took place: nearly 150,000 fled by sea, and the Bolsheviks shot tens of thousands of those left behind. Armed independence movements in the newly declared republics of Armenia,  Georgia, and Azerbaijan were crushed, and large portions added to the new USSR. The Czech Legion were allowed to travel east and evacuate by sea. The major failure of 1920 was the attack  on  Poland, which followed Polish attacks into disputed areas during 1919 and early 1920. The worker’s revolt the Reds were anticipating didn’t happen, and the Soviet army was ejected. The Civil War was effectively over by November 1920, although pockets of resistance struggled on for a few more years. The Reds were victorious. Now their Red Army and Cheka could focus on hunting down and eliminating the remaining traces of White Support. It took until 1922 for Japan to pull their troops out of the Far East. Between seven and ten million had died from war,  disease, and famine. All sides committed great atrocities. Aftermath The failure of the Whites in the civil war was caused in large part by their failure to unite, although because of Russia’s vast geography it’s hard to see how they ever could have provided a united front. They were also outnumbered and  outsupplied  by the Red Army, which had better communications. It’s also believed that the failure of the Whites to adopt a program of policies which would have appealed to the peasants – such as land reform – or the nationalists – such as independence – stopped them gaining any mass support. This failure allowed the Bolsheviks to establish themselves as rulers of the new, communist USSR, which would directly and substantially affect European – and world – history for decades. The Reds were by no means popular, but they were more popular than the conservative Whites thanks to land reform; by no means an effective government, but more effective than the Whites. The Red Terror of the Cheka was more effective than the White Terror, allowing a greater grip on their host population, stopping the sort of internal rebellion which might have fatally weakened the Reds. They outnumbered and outproduced their opponents thanks to holding the core of Russia, and could defeat their enemies piecemeal. The Russian economy was massively damaged, leading to Lenin’s pragmatic retreat into the market forces of the New Economic Policy. Finland, Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania were accepted as independent. The Bolsheviks has consolidated their power, with the party expanding, dissidents being quelled and institutions taking shape. Quite what effect the war had on the Bolsheviks, who started with a loose grip on Russia with little established, and ended firmly in charge, is debated. For many, the war happened so early in the lifespan of the Bolshevik’s rule that it had a massive effect, leading to the party’s willingness to coerce by violence, use highly centralized policies, dictatorship, and ‘summary justice’. A third of Communist party (the old Bolshevik party) members who joined in 1917 – 20 had fought in the war and gave the party an overall feeling of military command and unquestioned obedience to orders. The Reds were also able to tap into the Tsarist mindset to dominate.

Wednesday, November 6, 2019

Idealised love in the Portuguese and The Great Gatsby

Idealised love in the Portuguese and The Great Gatsby Free Online Research Papers Elizabeth Barret-Browning’s ‘Sonnets from the Portuguese’ and F. Scott. Fitzgerald’s ‘The Great Gatsby’ both reflect, in abstract style and varying contexts and elements, the experience of idealised love, hope and mortality. The elements employed by Barret-Browning and Fitzgerald, differ in their depictions of these themes through various literary devices, two of which are ‘points of view’ and ‘motifs/symbols’. Barret-Browning’s sonnet sequence illustrates a complex evolution of emotions as the poet moves through sorrow, self doubt, passion, fear, and ultimately profound exhilaration and joy, even in spite of the restlessly lingering thoughts of her own death, whereas, ‘The Great Gatsby’ follows the tale of young Nick Carraway, a seemingly pure man from the West, who decides to journey to New York to make his money in the stocks and bonds market. In New York, he is met with a story of love, lust, ad ultery and murder; it is a telling of the death of the American Dream, and the downfall of those who attempt to reach its illusory goals. ‘The Great Gatsby’ is a novel that takes place during the roaring twenties, or an era otherwise known as the Jazz Age. A time of prohibition and experimentation, the novel portrays both the chaos and loss of morals that many during that time experienced. In ‘The Great Gatsby’ Fitzgerald opted for a complex structure and a controlled narrative point of view, thus giving the novel a greater air of realism, written in a limited first person perspective, with Nick Carraway serving as the narrator and the only true voice. This deliberate inclusion forces the reader to experience the events in the novel, first hand, in addition to this, Nick is careful not to tell the reader things he himself does not know, this is one of the reasons that the novel is so convincing, Nick seems to be the only rational person, and he is the one relaying the events to us. Although Nick makes a connection with all the major characters throughout the novel, there is no better connectio n than with that of Gatsby, he becomes Gatsby’s’ confidant and with this is the change in Nick’s emotions, as well as the way he narrates the novel. Nick is fundamentally a listener to and observer of Gatsby and his world before he is a narrator. Before he can tell Gatsbys story, Nick suspends and enters Gatsbys world, accepting his terms of discourse. It is precisely by articulating both his faith and his doubt about Gatsby that Nick becomes a model for the reader in addition to being a writer and storyteller. As Gatsbys mood and character changes throughout the novel so does Nicks view of him, thus affecting the readers perspective. Gatsbys radiant and understanding smile is the sole characteristic about him that allows Nick to fade in and out of his loyalty and love for Gatsby â€Å"There was something gorgeous about him†. Having Nick as the narrator gives a different perspective on what he gathered from the situation. Where Gatsbys story lacks in sto rytelling quality Gatsbys very phrases were worn so threadbare that they evoked no image† an opportunity is presented to Nick to fill in Gatsbys emptiness with lyrical prose, his absence with perfect metaphors, and his silence with words for the feelings that Nick imagines his hero must have felt. With Nick as the narrator we are able to weave through the intricate lives of the characters. The notion of idealised love is presented through the relationship of Gatsby and Daisy, or rather, Gatsby and the idea of Daisy. Gatsby builds an image of Daisy representing happiness and love. The time between his conscription and return perpetuates this mental image. Though Daisy does not measure up to the idealistic image Gatsby has established, he cannot see past the beautiful illusion. This represents the falsehoods of a supposed single dream to suit all people, and bring happiness to all who pursue it. Gatsby believes he is seeking happiness and love, but his journey is corrupted by the materialism and amoral lifestyle present in Fitzgeralds time. Just as the Dutch sailors first set eyes on the fresh green breast of the new world, Gatsby sees this spiritual optimism in the green light- a motif in the novel. The death of Myrtle and the concept of mortality is represented through Nickâ⠂¬â„¢s use of expressive language, he states â€Å"where Myrtle Wilson, her life violently extinguished, knelt in the road and mingled her thick dark blood with the dust†, this expression of life’s tragic end here is complemented by Nicks use of imagery, we are left with the raw image of Myrtle lying on the floor in displaced agony stark message to readers that life is not perpetual and everlasting. Hope is depicted through Gatsby’s chase of the American Dream, he does not rest until this is finally fulfilled, it never becomes truly realized and he ends up paying the ultimate price of his life for it. Gatsby is blinded by the illusions that stand between him and happiness. Gatsby perceives Daisy to be his happiness, but Daisy is not. Fitzgerald examines the American Dream by autopsy, through the reflective narrator. Though the principles of the idealistic dream still exist, highlighted by Gatsbys ambition and drive to improve himself, the morality behind the d ream has been substituted by money, resulting in decadence, corruption and distinct class divisions between people. Fitzgerald represents the corruption and the demise of the original, idealistic American Dream with the death of both Gatsby and Wilson- two men who make a living, and strive to better themselves with new money. Gatsby however was disillusioned by his belief that money could buy him happiness. They both possess the gift of hope, but the established order crushes them, he had a romantic readinesssome heightened sensitivity to the promises of lifeit was an extraordinary gift of hope The Victorians followed the Romantics in believing in the connection with the sequence of regeneration, renewal and recycle. Barret-Browning’s sonnets offer Victorian ideals of marriage being the ‘proper’ way to reaffirm love. Whilst Barret-Browning’s newfound love provides the impetus behind the Sonnet sequence it also, for the Victorian reader, epitomises the appropriate poetry for women to write, because, it showed a woman in her best role loving and expressing sentiments of love. The poet speaker is the subject (subjecting) and the result is an intellectual exploration of love and the examination of the illusion of a love connection, which is not permanent, eternal and unconditional. The poet attempts to look past all that and essentially generates universal themes about humanity through the use of language and symbology. Barret-Browning successfully revived the form of the Italian sonnet developed by Petrarch in the 14th century and also expands tradi tional conventions of such a form to include feminine variation that was yet unseen. Barret-Browning’s precise application of this rigid long established masculine structure allows her innovative feminine deviations to emerge. Usually the speaker of the sonnet is a male, praising a silent, or absent female object of worship, here, however, the female object is in fact the speaker of the poem and a participator rather than an observer. She is not ‘golden’ or ‘lovely’ but instead dark, ill, and close to death. Throughout the sonnet sequence love is portrayed as continually changing the person or people experiencing it, almost as if it were a kind of remedy and therapy. â€Å"I love thee to the depth and breadth and height My soul can reach, when feeling out of sight For the ends of Being and ideal Grace.† Sonnet LXIII. The language of this abstract image portrays love to be unconfinable. This is emphasized by â€Å"when feeling out of sight† as the image of the love is portrayed as being further that can actually be seen which accentuates the boundless image of love. The poetic voices’ â€Å"soul† adds to the this image as a soul is not an object which can be contained within the body as it knows no bounds, and so the portrayal of love can be viewed as eternal. This image also depicts the magnitude of love as the language of â€Å"depth and breadth and height† shows how vast the love the poetic voice feels. The structure is a vital tool to the poet when portraying love and relationships in the poem. The poem itself is written in iambic pentameter and it is this structural point that enforces â€Å"depth† a nd â€Å"breadth† and â€Å"height† to be verbally stressed. This enforces the idea of the endless boundaries and the magnitude of love and relationships within this poem. The accentuation of these words highlights them within the line making them key words and stand apart from it. Another structural point is the use enjambment; this can highlight many aspects of love and relationships, which are trying to be conveyed. The enjambments of the lines add to the portrayal of love knowing no limits at both enjambments. The lack of punctuation also serves a structural purpose â€Å" I love thee to the depth and breadth and height† and reiterates the boundless image of love, as the punctuation cannot disrupt the line and so is elongated. Sonnet XIII puts forward the question of â€Å"can language represent the experience or is it just an echo of experience?† The sonnet begins with an indignant refusal to put into words the value of love, then changes into an ina bility, in being able to comprehend the human experience of love. The poem uses traditional feminine stereotypes to express the value of love. Her ‘woman love’ being a symbol of the soft feminine curve Victorian women were expected to fit into. Complementing the author’s element of point of view, both authors use symbology and motifs to express the ideas of idealised love, hope and mortality. There are three main motifs and symbols used in ‘The Great Gatsby’, they are, the Green Light at the end of Daisys dock, the Valley of ashes, and the eyes of Dr. T.J. Eckleburg. The Valley of Ashes is a physical desert one that is a direct representation of the notion of futility or no hope, it symbolises the spiritual desolation, that a society based on money creates. The Valley of Ashes exists as the illustration of the lower-class society as well as the loss of morals and disgrace of humanity; it represents the modern world a grotesque hell created by modernity. Terrible place, isnt it, said Tom, exchanging a frown with Doctor Eckleburg. The eyes of Dr. T. J. Eckleburg serve as an omniscient God in the dying society Fitzgerald seeks to depict. His huge and unblinking celestial eyes add the presence of something higher that constantly watches and looks down upon the valley. The icon of Dr T. J. Eckleburg, being a figure of American success, conveys commercial values and the loss of spirituality as he represents an inverted God who â€Å"sees all†. Amidst the materialistic values of the wealthy, Gatsby is isolated, ironically outcast from the upper classes, as suggested by Nick’s dejected tone at Gatsby’s funeral, â€Å"but it was no use – nobody came†, revealing the shallowness of the affluent in the 1920’s and emphasising the delusion of honest relationships and despondency that surrounds Gatsby. The only sign of hope to resist such structures of capitalism is T.J. Eckleburg, the eyes that watch over the Valley of Ashes. These God-like eyes watch over the land, showing that even though the working class may not have the same comforts that the elite enjoy, they will always have the comfort of ‘God’. However the eyes are described as â€Å"huge, flat, empty eyes†, â€Å"they look out of no faceas they brood on over the solemn dumping ground.† they symbolise a dead God staring blindly out at the moral decay of humanity and the meaningless garbage that societies lives had become. Each character evades the consequences of his/her actions and hides from moral values which religion demands, but the eyes are immune to social class or beauty and focus entirely on the harsh reality of one’s actions. Eckleburg is also used as a symbol of mortality, throughout the novel Fitzgerald suggests that symbols only have meaning because characters fill them with meaning. The connection between the eyes of Doctor T. J. Eckleburg and God exists only in George Wilsons grief-stricken mind; Wilson later points to this saying, God sees everything before going on his murderous rampage. The lack of solid meaning contributes to the disturbing nature of the image. And so, the eyes also come to represent the meaninglessness of the world and the uncertainty of people. The green light, being the most apparent physical metaphor represents hope, it is a multi-faceted symbol that represents Gatsbys hope and longing for Daisy and the extent he was willing to go to in order to recreate the past. As Nick comments at the conclusion of the text, Gatsby believed in the green light, the orgastic future that year by year recedes before us. It eluded us then, but thats no matter tomorrow we will run faster, stretch our arms out farther Here Fitzgerald extends the symbol of the green light to the audience and invites them to continue to hope and dream against the odds. Barret-Browning’s use of motifs and metaphors throughout the sonnet sequence demonstrate the notions of mortality and hope by invoking stark and verdant imagery. Sonnet I depicts a despondent speaker, lying in darkness, grieving for the past, when suddenly a mysterious shape enters the room overtaking her. By now, well prepared to meet her end, she receives an unusual surprise. Barret-Browning has here personified death. The imagery of seizure, power and conflict invoke a sense of mortality and fragility. The poem is a stepping stone for the progression of emotion. It expresses depression and sadness felt most of her life, as well as illness and isolation. Sonnet XXII expresses mortality in terms of the more physical end of the spectrum. Here the poet suggests that love need not be bound on earth, that love is associated with stillness rather than activeness. The poem asks why strive for heaven when it can be achieved here on earth. Darkness and death appear to always be a part of her life giving into death/darkness is giving into the unknown. Sonnet XXXII states that a heart which is quick to love must also be quick to hate. When the poet looks upon herself in this poem she wonders if she is worthy of love? The poet casts herself as a musical instrument and relays that she is no more than an out of tune worn viol and that a good singer (the male entity) would be wroth to try and play. The symbol of the viol is used to illustrate the idea of hope. That perhaps the instrument might be restored. The male is cast as the musician with his ‘master hands’ while the woman is cast as the ‘instrument defaced’ deferri ng back to traditional Victorian values. The very last word, doat once again presents an element of doubt â€Å"maybe this is too quick and foolish?† Sonnet LXIII includes geometrical symbolism, the first couplet is used to convey ever expanding love ‘as far as the soul can reach’ when in the spiritual realm. The poet now understands that there isn’t anything special or glamorous about the business of love, it is unheroic and unromantic. Love has this everyday existence that reaches for the sun and stars but also ‘everyday’s most quiet need’. The reader is now of the understanding that grief and melancholy is of the past, yet she will put the same emotional intensity into love that she had previously put into her old griefs, thus ending the sonnet sequence. In the end ‘The Great Gatsby’ and ‘Sonnets from the Portuguese’ both great love stories one of consequence and another of timelessness written in different times in which literary/societal norms were defied by the authors, they serve as calamitous admonitions and manifestations of our own desires for idealised love, hope and mortality. The portrayal of these themes by Barret-Browning and Fitzgerald are both embodied through symbolism/motifs and the point of view of the speaker, which in turn create tantamount ideas of idealised love, hope and mortality. Research Papers on Idealised love in the Portuguese and The Great GatsbyMind TravelComparison: Letter from Birmingham and CritoThe Masque of the Red Death Room meaningsBook Review on The Autobiography of Malcolm XWhere Wild and West MeetTrailblazing by Eric AndersonHonest Iagos Truth through DeceptionThree Concepts of PsychodynamicEffects of Television Violence on ChildrenCanaanite Influence on the Early Israelite Religion

Sunday, November 3, 2019

NEWS CORPORATION CASE STUDY Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

NEWS CORPORATION CASE STUDY - Essay Example NC has existence in six media domains that include Cable Network Programming; Filmed Entertainment; Television; Direct Broadcast Satellite Television; Publishing, and Other (Reuters, 2012). This essay is based on the case study analysis regarding the overall expansion strategies of NC. Based on the information in the case study, it explores corporate level strategies of NC and discusses attempt it undertakes to add value to its overall portfolio. For the purpose, strategy matrixes of Ansoff product and market development matrix and corporate parenting matrix have been applied; analysis and suggestion for improvement has also been provided. Analysis for the criticism on Ansoff product development has also been made part of the essay. News Corporation media conglomerate initiated its journey in 1923 with publishing of a local newspaper The News in Adelaide, Australia by Ruport Murdoch’s father. The corporation continued growth and by year 1980 News Corporation had success in cre ating country’s only national newspaper The Australian, also two national magazines and 20 Provincial newspapers. Major developments in the journey of NC have landmarks. NC in 1968 expanded beyond its homeland Australia and entered UK with purchase of News of the World and to US in 1973 with purchase of The Express Publishing Company. Since then, journey for constantly increasing global footing is on way. News Corporation attempted first diversification strategy with major shift to US and bought Film Company Twentieth century Fox in year 1984. In 1989 NC entered into satellite broadcasting business in UK. It further expanded to Asia In 1993 acquired STAR TV followed by developing foothold in internet media with acquisition of My Space.com in 2005. NC has been following the technological development at each stage successfully except few exceptions. Its overall strategy has been to size the unanticipated and unique opportunity with agility no matter how much risky the new ventu re get. It carried strategy of providing customised product. Throughout journey in case study, NC has been managed by Ruport Murdoch. Ruport Murdoch has been described as person with intention to rule the world and so is reflected in the risky moves taken by NC. RM also has been very dominant in guiding the deep down operations and in order to get the positive results he had was free to use his political terms to support his ventures. NC has been successfully leveraging its financial, personnel and knowledge resource to expand and control the business that has international presence in various media related domains. Though financial conditions have had some difficult times but NC has been able to strengthen it with its strategy. The Ansoff (1965) developed strategy matrix using two dimension of development; first product development and other being market development. This matrix gained much popularity in business literature. The matrix with former variable on horizontal axis and la tter one vertical axis provided four strategies which are: product development, market development, market penetration and diversification (Cravens and Piercy, 2008). Individually both variables have been given the credit to play crucial role in leading firm’s success; since pioneering study by Stopford and Wells (1972). Moreover, there have been large numbers of studies developing the success stories with strategies developed by combining the two variables in matrix (Constantinides, 2004; Watts, Cope, and Hulme, 1998; Delios and Beamish, 2002) (Constantinides, 2004) The Ansoff matrix being the combination of important variables of international literature has its own success levels; however, four strategies develo

Friday, November 1, 2019

Death penalty Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Death penalty - Essay Example Even though I was too young to understand the meaning completely, the issue had a great impact on me. . After long term consideration I believe that the death penalty should be legal because it helps prevent violent crime and saves lives of innocent people. Different countries view the death penalty differently. Here what I would like to talk about is the death penalty in China, Japan and the U.S. These countries are the three largest economies in the world, and they are where I have grown up and live. . Japan and China are based on Eastern culture, and the U.S is based on Western Culture. They have similarities and differences; however, they all have the death penalty. In the U.S. there are two reasons why people support death penalty, and they are retribution and deterrence. The idea of retribution is that a murderer must sacrifice his life because he took someone’s life, and the basic idea is â€Å"an eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth.† The idea of deterrence i s that death penalty can prevent people from committing murder. Both Japan and China subscribe to these two reasons for the death penalty, but seem to be more supportive of the death penalty than people in the U.S. ... students were the lowest and Japanese students were in the middle (Shanhe et al.). I grew up in Japan and China, and this might contribute to the reason why I strongly agree with death penalty. The death penalty may be a factor in saving lives. People make their decisions based on their costs or benefits; therefore, a person may stop himself from killing someone if he knows he may be executed as a result (Muhlhausen). It is similar to not stealing because there will be a punishment. If the punishment is execution there will be less likelihood of stealing. The stricter the law, the less and less people commit a crime because everybody fears death, even animals. Most criminals would think twice if they knew their own lives were at stake. Second, many studies have shown that executions can lead to a decrease in murder rates; and on the other hand that abolishing the death penalty increases the incidence of murder. Professor Shepherd analyzed data from 1977 to 1999 and found that the com bination of death row sentences and executions deterred many types of murders. She estimated that each death row sentence deters approximately 4.5 murders, and each execution approximately 3 murders. A second issue Shepherd examined was the impact of delaying the execution on deterrence. The numerous appeals and stays of execution that criminals request imply that they prefer lengthy death row waits. Shepherd therefore theorized that shortening the death row wait may increase the deterrence, and estimates that for every 2.75 year reduction in the death row wait for execution one extra murder could be deterred. It means that shorter term of waiting execution can save human’s life (Muhlhausen). According to the U.S. Murder Rate and Executions, the murder rate decreases when the