Saturday, August 31, 2019
Heaney’s poems explore by varied poetic means the enduring significance of family and childhood in human life
Much of Heaney's poetry, particularly from his early selections, explores childhood and family. Heaney perhaps uses these themes as a means of discovering his true self by travelling back to his roots. His childhood experiences have certainly had a deep impact and acted as inspiration for many of the poems from his first book, Ã¢â¬ËDeath of a Naturalist', but there are also poems in later books that explore this theme. Aside from giving us an insight into Heaney's early life, his exploration of childhood and family also reflects the rural Irish culture at the time and the political situation in Ireland. The poet also explores the themes of childhood and family through the use of various poetic devices, including vivid imagery and structure. The first poem that I have decided to examine is Ã¢â¬ËDigging' from Heaney's first collection, Ã¢â¬ËDeath of a Naturalist'. This poem focuses on the poet's father and grandfather, and his admiration for their digging skills. It also shows the great contrast between father and son, in that Heaney has Ã¢â¬Å"no spade to follow men like themÃ¢â¬ ; his talents lie in writing. Digging' is the first poem in the selection, and certainly depicts Heaney's insecurities about his writing career and his early struggle to define himself as a poet, and break the family tradition of rural labour. The poem is littered with various poetic devices, which help to bring the poem and the poet's feelings alive to the reader. Firstly, Heaney uses the simile, Ã¢â¬Å"snug as a gunÃ¢â¬ to describe the way the pen feels when he holds it. This suggests that it fits his hand well and is very powerful. It could also mean that, whereas his father and grandfather use the spade as their weapon, Heaney uses the pen. Some have also proposed that the image of the Ã¢â¬Å"gunÃ¢â¬ is a reflection of the violence in Northern Ireland. However, this cannot be so, because this poem was published in 1966, before the troubles started. He also chooses to use rather vivid language to describe his father's actions while digging in the garden. For example, Ã¢â¬Å"a clean rasping soundÃ¢â¬ is almost onomatopoeia, as the word really sounds like the noise a spade makes when it sinks into hard ground. Further examples of onomatopoeia are, Ã¢â¬Å"squelchÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"slapÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"sloppilyÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"gravellyÃ¢â¬ . Ã¢â¬Å"Straining rumpÃ¢â¬ is also a good choice of language, as the reader can instantly visualise how hard the man is working and feel his pain. A further poetic tool is the use of technical language, such as Ã¢â¬Å"lugÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"shaftÃ¢â¬ , which show their technique and skill in their trade, as they know exactly what they are doing and thoroughly understand every part of their tool. Colloquial language is also used, such as Ã¢â¬Å"By God, the old man could handle a spadeÃ¢â¬ . This is perhaps used as a way for Heaney to connect with the rural population of Ireland and associate himself with his roots. The structure of the poem is also a very important feature, as it helps to illustrate Heaney's insecurities with his writing career. The stanzas are very irregular, suggesting that the poet's thoughts are wandering aimlessly as he is trying to discover his true identity and accept his trade. However, the structure could also be said to portray the idea of digging, in that the first four stanzas grow in length, almost like a spade travelling deeper into the ground. Heaney uses the theme of Ã¢â¬ËDigging' and roots as an extended metaphor, as through writing this poem, he is attempting to get back and identify with his own roots and dig into the past and his childhood, in order to discover his true self. He demonstrates the significance of family and childhood experiences and the impact they have on your actions in later life. Heaney was clearly worried that he was disappointing his father by not continuing the family trade, and this poem seems to act as an apology for this. The last stanza of Ã¢â¬ËDigging' is very similar to the first stanza, but instead of the pen being Ã¢â¬Å"as snug as a gunÃ¢â¬ , Heaney resolves that he will Ã¢â¬Å"dig with itÃ¢â¬ . This implies that the pen is Heaney's tool, just like the spade was his predecessors' tool. The occupations may be vastly different, but they still require a great deal of expertise. The second poem that I have chosen to explore is Ã¢â¬ËPersonal Helicon', which is also from Heaney's first collection, Ã¢â¬ËDeath of Naturalist'. This poem contains many double meanings. On the surface, it would appear as if Heaney is reflecting on his favourite pastime as a child, which was playing with water and wells. This, indeed, is true, but he is also using the theme to talk about writing poetry. The word Ã¢â¬Å"HeliconÃ¢â¬ in the title refers to a place in ancient Greece where there are springs that supposedly give inspiration to anyone that drinks there. This suggests that, for Seamus Heaney, the memories of his childhood and his love for water and wells are his personal inspiration for his poetry. It is also an interesting choice of word because both sources of inspiration are associated with water. Ã¢â¬Å"So deep you saw no reflection in itÃ¢â¬ describes one particular well that Heaney encountered as a child. However, the image of the bottomless well also portrays what a poem is like, filled with different meanings. A further example of a double meaning can be found in the line, Ã¢â¬Å"A white face hovered over the bottomÃ¢â¬ . This refers to the literal reflection of Heaney that could be seen in the water, but could also mean that he is always evident in his poems; each poem connects in some way with the poet, no matter what the theme is. An important poetic device that the poet uses in Ã¢â¬ËPersonal Helicon' is highly expressive and vivid language, which helps the reader to envision exactly what the wells were like. Good examples of this are Ã¢â¬Å"fungusÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"dank mossÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"finger slimeÃ¢â¬ , which all conjure up wonderful, yet repulsive images of exactly what wells are like and the enjoyment that children find in wet, dirty places. Heaney has also incorporated a clever metaphor into the poem, which is Ã¢â¬Å"the trapped skyÃ¢â¬ . The sky is obviously not trapped within the well in a physical sense, but it appears to be due to its reflection in the water at the bottom of the well. The last two lines of Ã¢â¬ËPersonal Helicon' are extremely significant, as they represent the motivation behind Heaney's poetry and illustrate exactly what he is like. Ã¢â¬Å"I rhyme to see myself, to set the darkness echoing. Ã¢â¬ This would imply that Seamus Heaney writes poetry in order to discover himself and approach subjects that cannot be approached in any other way. A critic once proposed that the Ã¢â¬Å"darknessÃ¢â¬ refers to the unknown, the things that remain hidden, concepts that have not been brought into the light and expressed in words. Whether it is personal fears or social and political injustices, poetry is a medium to bring these unspoken attitudes and opinions to the world, and to make them Ã¢â¬Å"echoÃ¢â¬ and resound with force. The mention of the word, Ã¢â¬Å"darknessÃ¢â¬ also links in with Heaney's next book, entitled Ã¢â¬Å"Door into the DarkÃ¢â¬ , suggesting that he was very insecure and apprehensive about his Ã¢â¬Ëdebut' collection of poems and how successful it would be. Overall, Ã¢â¬ËPersonal Helicon' gives the reader an insight into Seamus Heaney's childhood and the features of rural Ireland, and shows, similarly to the previous poem, what effects childhood experiences can have on a person's later life. The final poem that I have chosen to study is Ã¢â¬ËThe Other Side' from Heaney's third poetry collection, Ã¢â¬ËWintering Out'. This poem chronicles the poet's childhood experiences of the vast divide between Catholics and Protestants in Northern Ireland, and tells the story of a Catholic family (Heaney's family) and a Protestant neighbour living on the other side of the stream. Heaney uses a great deal of religious imagery within this poem, perhaps in order to reinforce the theme of religious divide. A good example of this is, Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ËIt's poor as Lazarus, that ground'Ã¢â¬ . Lazarus is the name of a poor man in the bible, so this is a clever simile that not only depicts the poor quality of Heaney's farmland, but also underpins the overall theme of the poem. There are a number of other religious images within the poem also. Ã¢â¬Å"That tongue of chosen peopleÃ¢â¬ is a reference to Protestants and the fact that they are supposed to speak Ã¢â¬Å"properlyÃ¢â¬ and in a superior manner to Catholics. Ã¢â¬Å"Chosen peopleÃ¢â¬ is a biblical image and Ã¢â¬Å"promised furrowsÃ¢â¬ links in with the bible and the idea of the Ã¢â¬Å"promised landÃ¢â¬ . TaresÃ¢â¬ is another word used in the poem that suggests religious significance, as in the bible, these were weeds that the enemy deliberately planted to ruin others' crops. Another interesting simile within this poem is, Ã¢â¬Å"as if party to lovemaking or a stranger's weepingÃ¢â¬ . This is an excellent use of imagery, as it really portrays to the reader the extent of the neighbour's embarrassment at having interrupted Heaney's family's prayers. Another poetic device used in the poem is onomatopoeia, shown through the expression Ã¢â¬Å"moan of prayersÃ¢â¬ . The word Ã¢â¬Å"moanÃ¢â¬ really does sound like the chanting of prayers often heard in churches, as it is a rather extended, droning word, reflecting what the prayers were like. To conclude, Ã¢â¬ËThe Other Side' depicts the significance of family and childhood experiences, as Heaney has undoubtedly gained much inspiration from his memories of the division between religions in Ireland when he was a child. Overall, it is evident that a number of Heaney's poems explore the enduring significance of family and childhood in human life, as he openly acquires a good deal of inspiration from his early years. Within these poems, he uses various poetic devices as a means of expressing memories, feelings and objects in a highly vivid and engaging way. His fascinating and intelligent use of language is certainly at the forefront of all of his poems, whether it is shown through imagery, onomatopoeia or realistic descriptions. Heaney once said that, Ã¢â¬ËWords themselves are doors', suggesting that they can open up new ways of understanding, expressing and interpreting situations and feelings.
Corina Nava Pelton Strategic Management March, 2013 Chris Canolis I. Target Corporation American retailing company headquartered in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Target is the second-largest discount retailer in the United States, behind Wal-Mart. The Target chain discount stores range from 95,000 to 135,000 square feet. Super Target chain hypermarkets are approx. 174,000 sq. ft. TargetÃ¢â¬â¢s beginnings During the Panic of 1893 which caused a decline in retail estate prices, the Westminster Presbyterian Church burned down, and because its insurance wouldn't cover the cost of a new building, the church was looking for revenue.Its congregation appealed to Dayton to buy the empty corner lot next to the demolished building from the church so it could rebuild. Dayton bought it and eventually constructed a six-story building on that corner lot in downtown Minneapolis. 1902, Dayton, looking for tenants, convinced Reuben Simon Goodfellow Company to move its nearby Goodfellow department store in to his newly-erected building. Goodfellow retired and sold his interest in the store to Dayton. The store's name was changed to the Dayton Dry Goods Company in 1903. 923, Dayton's 43 year old son David died, prompting George to start deferring parts of his business to another son, Nelson Dayton. 1938, George Dayton passed away and Nelson Dayton assumed the role of president of the Dayton Company, a $14 million business. 1944, it offered its workers a retirement policy, becoming one of the first stores in the United States to do so. 1962 the Dayton Company, using John F. Geisse's concepts,(American Business Man who launched successful retail chains), opened its first Target discount store located at 1515 West County Road B in the Saint Paul suburb of Roseville, Minnesota. 969, in the same year, TargetÃ¢â¬â¢s parent company, Dayton, merged with JL Hudson Company of Detroit and became Dayton-Hudson Corporation. 1978, the company acquired Mervyns and became the 7th largest general mer chandise retailer in the United States. Target Stores opened eight new stores that year. 1982, it expanded into the West Coast of the United States. 1986, the company acquired 50 Gemco stores from Lucky Stores in California, allowing Target Stores to become the dominant retailer in Southern California as the chain grew to a total of 246 units. 988, Target Stores expanded into the Northwestern United States. 1989, it expanded to the Southeastern United States where it entered Florida, Georgia, North Carolina, and South Carolina to a total of 399 units in 30 states with $7. 51 billion in sales. 1990, it acquired Marshall Field's from BATUS Inc. 1995, Target Stores opened its first Super-Target hypermarket in Omaha, Nebraska. It launched the Target Guest Card, the discount retail industry's first store credit card. 1999, Dayton-Hudson acquired Fedco and its ten stores in a move to expand its Super-Target operation into Southern California. 000, Dayton Hudson Corporation changed its nam e to Target Corporation and its ticker symbol to TGT; by then, between 75 percent and 80 percent of the corporation's total sales and earnings came from Target Stores; Dayton's, Hudson's, Marshall Field's, and Mervyns were used to fuel the growth of Target, which expanded to 977 stores in 46 states and sales reached $29. 7 billion by the end of the year. 2001, it launched its online gift registry. 2004, Target Corporation announced its sale of the Marshall Field's to St. Louis, Missouri-based May Department Stores.Target Stores expanded to 1308 units and reached $46. 8 billion USD in sales. 2005, Target began operation in Bangalore, India. It reached 1397 units and $52. 6 billion in sales. 2006, Target completed construction of the Robert J. Ulrich Center in Embassy Golf Links in Bangalore, and Target planned to continue its expansion into India. 2009, Target expanded outside of the continental United States for the first time. Two stores were opened simultaneously on the island of Oahu in Hawaii, along with two stores in Alaska. 2010, Target announces its goal to give $1 billion to education causes and charities by 2015.Target began a nationwide closing of its remaining 262 garden centers, reportedly due to Ã¢â¬Å"stronger competition from home-improvement stores, Wal-Mart and independent garden centers. 2011, Target announced its first ever international expansion, into Canada, when it purchased the leaseholds for up to 220 stores. The first City-Target opened in 2012. City-Target is the name for a smaller-format, downtown Target store aimed at the urban market. The assortment will be edited towards urban living, but will carry many of the same products.The stores will still look and feel like Target but many will be multilevel stores in existing landmark buildings, not the usual strip mall or stand-alone locations. _____________________________________________________________________________________ II. CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s Statements 1. Mission Statement Our m ission is to make Target your preferred shopping destination in all channels by delivering outstanding value, continuous innovation and exceptional guest experiences by consistently fulfilling our Expect More. Pay Less brand promise. 2. VisionTarget envisions vibrant thriving communities that they help, in which all residents have access to social and financial equity to ensure constant growth and a long term plan to sustain success. 3. Values * Design for all It's our belief that great design is fun; energetic, surprising and smart should be accessible and affordable for everyone. When we talk about our dedication to good design, we donÃ¢â¬â¢t just mean how something looks, but also how it satisfies a need, how it simplifies your life, and how it makes you feel. * Great guest serviceIn stores or online, we work hard to ensure your Target shopping trip is always enjoyable and exciting. How do we do it? Friendly service from team members ready to assist with your list, fully stocke d shelves and a speedy checkout processÃ¢â¬âand thatÃ¢â¬â¢s just the start. * More for your money We think a lot about your budget and how to give you the best value every time you shop with us. In addition to our already low prices, we offer other ways to save you money; including price matching in our stores and an additional 5%. * Fun and rewarding place to workOur team is our greatest asset, so we invest in the growth and development of all team members, and have fun in all we do. And weÃ¢â¬â¢re committed to building a team that does the right thing for our communities, our shareholders and, above all, our guests. * Legacy of giving and service Community giving isÃ¢â¬âand always has beenÃ¢â¬âa cornerstone of our company. We give our time, talent and business strengths to make our communities strong, healthy and safe. We invest in career development and well-being of our team. And from the start, weÃ¢â¬â¢ve given 5 percent of our income, a commitment that does not waver based on the economic climate. . Goals * To incorporate diversity into every facet of their business. * To make sure that the diversity of their employees mirror the diversity found in the communities in which they are located. * As a company: To search for and find the most qualified applicants who are high-performing, highly motivated, and bring with them diverse experiences and talents. * The goal of the councils is to jointly help individuals to further develop their careers at the same time as improving the Target work environment as a whole. To respect and value the individuality of all their team members and guests. Target today * Target stores tend to attract younger and more educated and affluent customers than Wal-Mart, among other competitors. * The median Target shopper is 41 years old, the youngest of all major discount retailers that Target competes directly against. * The median household income of Target's customer base is roughly $63,000. * Roughly 76% of Targ et customers are female. * More than 45% have children at home. * About 80% have attended college and 48% have completed college. 97% of American consumers recognize the Target Bulls eye logo. ________________________________________________________________________________________ III. External Analysis 1. Environmental Analysis: a. Economics b. Demographics c. Governmental 2. Industry 3. Competition 4. Opportunities and Threats ________________________________________________________________________________________ 1. Environmental Analysis: a. Economics * Target plans to have between 100 and 150 stores open in Canada by 2014. The company has also launched a new store concept plan called City-Target.These stores are aimed at urban shoppers who live in cities, so these stores wonÃ¢â¬â¢t carry big bulky items customers canÃ¢â¬â¢t carry. The corporation has also done remodeling to stores so they now have fresh produce and grocery items. All these new additions to the Target Corpor ation have been an aid in the growth of the company in the past years. * Target can access helpful economic trending data compiled by the Organization for Economic Cooperation & Development (OECD), including economic forecasts for growth, weakness, instability, as well as GDP and aging indexes. Target stores are rapidly growing and opening in almost every city in America and show no signs of downsizing. * To boost sales, the company has increasingly promoted its company issued credit & debit card. * As the economy has faltered, more consumers have become price-conscious and Target has adapted to such needs by creating $1 bins, offering bulk paper product and household goods, and scaled back on home decor items. b. Demographics * Target shoppers have a median age of 46 Ã¢â¬â the youngest among major retailers. The median household income of Target guests is $55,000. * Forty-three percent of Target shoppers have completed college. More than half of Target guests are employed in pro fessional or other managerial positions. * Eighty to ninety percent of Target guests are female. * Thirty-eight percent of guests have children at home Ã¢â¬â or in a red shopping cart with them. This figure is consistently more than any other discount storeÃ¢â¬â¢s customer profile. c. Governmental * Long-standing commitment to equal opportunity Employment has increased the diversity of the work force. In 2005, Target became the first national retailer to voluntarily decide to place all cough, cold and allergy products containing pseudo ephedrine behind the pharmacy counter. In stores where we do not have a pharmacy, products containing pseudo ephedrine will not be sold. * Target does not sell real guns, or toy guns that can be mistaken for real guns. * Refrain completely from use of child labor. Child labor as being below the minimum legal working age according to local law, or under the age of 14, whichever is greater. Wage calculations are done in all factories to verify that the workers are being paid according to local labor law as well as for all of the time worked. 2. Industry Target Corporation operates in the Services industry, specifically in the Discount, Variety Stores sector. Target remains a high performer, with a market capitalization of 43. 2 billion dollars, second only to Wal-Mart. Market Positioning Analysis Industry Classification = Discount Department Store. Categories * Household * Pharmacy, beauty, personal care * Toys * Electronics * Music, movies, books Sporting goods Apparel * Apparel for women, men, boys, and accessories * Food and Pet Supplies * Dry grocery, dairy, frozen food, beverages * Home Furnishings, Furniture * Lighting * Kitchenware, small and Decor appliances, home decor * Bath and bath accessories. * Automotive 3. Competition Target faces strong competition from wholesalers such as Wal-Mart and Costco as well as department stores like MacyÃ¢â¬â¢s and Sears Holding Company. Nevertheless, it has secured a strong posit ion in the market, holding a 33. 4% department store market share while the Super Target represents 3. % of the Warehouse Clubs & Super Centers in the US. a. Barriers to Entry: Despite the expansive network of suppliers needed to become a viable company in this sector, successfully adding a company to the mix in order to compete against the likes of BJS, Costco, Wal-Mart and Target is highly unlike. Especially because of the nature of the business- to provide all types of quality items at a low cost, unless one angles to come in as niche discounter (like with the 99 cent/Dollar stores), there are enough barriers to entry in place to keep most companies out of the discount retailer competition. b.Substitutes: There are very few substitutes for discounted retailers, thus making it a profitable industry. Either consumers shop at traditional retail outlets with higher prices, or stay within the industry itself. c. Buyers: Though feeling the pinch of a weakened economy, are still looking towards Target and its peer competitors for the best products at the lower prices. While demand in the sector has slowed little, Target continues to perform well above industry. d. Suppliers: Individual discount retailers have a vast network of suppliers from all over the globe and even under their own private label.Target has its own label for furniture and home goods that operates in Minnesota. Many of its competitions, including the Family Dollar Chain and the 99 Cent chain also have networks of suppliers, mostly in Asia, in addition of their own in-house suppliers. 4. Opportunities and Threats e. Opportunities * Global Expansion * Entering untapped US Markets * Continued growth in private label products * Financial Services- (credit cards) * Demand for Top quality, luxury, comfort * Demand for organic products * Technology (Internet, credit cards, reservations) f. Threats * Costco and Wal-Mart are heavy competition. U. S. Economy * Economic forces effect many areas negatively, but are expected to improve. * Interest rates are rising * Increase in online shopping * Decreased Customer Spending ______________________________________________________________________________________ IV. Internal Analysis 1. TargetÃ¢â¬â¢s Strategic Business Units: a. The Stores: i. Target Discount Stores Is a chain of discount stores that are about 95,000 to 135,000 square feet, and carry hardliners, soft lines (clothing), and a limited amount of groceries, mostly non-perishable. Specifically, Target stores carry lothing, shoes, jewelry, health and beauty products, electronics, compact discs, DVDs, bedding, kitchen supplies, sporting goods, toys, pet supplies, automotive supplies, and hardware supplies. They also carry seasonal merchandise such as patio furniture during the summer and Christmas. ii. Super-Target Is a chain of hypermarkets that are about 174,000 sq. ft. (16,200 m2) and feature double entrances on one-story stores. These stores offer everything found in a regula r Target as well as a full grocery selection, fresh produce, bakery and deli, with most locations having a Target Optical.Many Super Targets feature Starbucks Coffee, Pizza Hut Express, Taco Bell Express, Target Pharmacy, The Studio @ Target (a portrait studio), Target Photo, Target Mobile (a Wireless kiosk), and a Wells Fargo Bank or U. S. Bank. iii. Target City: The Chicago store allocates approximately 55,000 sq ft (5,100 m2) to its sales floor. City Target stores carry groceries, prescriptions, cosmetics, clothing, electronics, toys, and apartment essentials such as furniture, linens, and kitchen utensils. Certain items too bulky for urban apartments or for customers to carry are not stocked in City Target stores. v. Target Greatland Is a chain of general merchandise superstores, with a size of about 150,000 square feet, they carry a larger selection of general merchandise than basic Target store; however, they do not have a full-line of groceries like meat, bakery, deli, produc e and dairy. b. Financial and Retail Services (FRS) Formerly Target Financial Services (TFS): issues Target's credit cards, known as the Target RED card (formerly the Target Guest Card), issued through Target National Bank (formerly Retailers National Bank) for consumers and through Target Bank for businesses.The Target Debit Card withdraws funds from the customer's existing checking account, and allows for up to $40 Ã¢â¬Å"cash back. Ã¢â¬ The debit card allows customers to save five percent of each purchase, as well as designate a school for Target's Take Charge of Education program, and accumulate pharmacy rewards. c. Target Sourcing Services (TSS): This global sourcing organization locates merchandise from around the world for Target and helps import the merchandise to the United States. TSS has 27 full-service offices, 48 quality-control offices, and seven concessionaires located throughout the world.TSS employs 1,200 people. d. Target Commercial Interiors: Provides design se rvices and furniture for office space and originated in the home furniture department at DaytonÃ¢â¬â¢s. Currently, Target Commercial Interiors has an unusually high market share of Fortune 500/1000 business customers, and are expanding to attract small to medium sized businesses, as well as home offices. e. Target Brands: Owns and oversees the company's private label products, including the grocery brands Archer Farms and Market Pantry. f. Target Forensic ServicesTarget also operates two sophisticated criminal forensics laboratories, one at its headquarters and the other in Las Vegas. Originally, the lab was created with the role of investigating internal instances of theft and fraud and other criminal actions that have occurred on its own properties. Eventually, the company began offering pro bono services to law enforcement agencies across the country. Target's Forensic Services has assisted agencies at all levels of government, including federal agencies such as the United Stat es Secret Service, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms and the Federal Bureau of Investigation.The labs have become such a popular resource for law enforcement that Target has had to restrict its assistance to violent felonies. g. Target. com: Owns and oversees the company's e-commerce initiatives, such as the Target. com domain. Founded in early 2000 as target direct. 2. Financial Analysis (Also Attached) 3. Strengths and Weaknesses a. Strengths: * Strong Marketing Initiatives * Brand Quality * Leading Market Presence * Ã¢â¬Å"Going GreenÃ¢â¬ Trend * Online shopping with free shipping to the local store * Design-trend * Innovative Marketing Techniques * Active Social Media * Favorable Real Estate Locations Size and Cost Advantages * Customer Loyalty at Target is Essential * Target Has Efficient Operations * In Store Credit Card b. Weaknesses * High employee turnover at store level * Food margins lower than general merchandise * Stores vary little by region * Their store bran d can be the same price as well-known brands item * None or no enough self-service register * No whole sale. c. Financial trends and projections Target Corp. (TGT) may represent one of the best choices in the retail sector. There are many pluses to consider regarding this retail stalwart given todayÃ¢â¬â¢s rapidly changing retail environment.Target is much more than its 1,787 retail stores in the United States and Canada. TargetÃ¢â¬â¢s credit operations and rapidly evolving online presence both offer strong prospects for growth. From a fundamental perspective, Target appears attractively valued on many fronts. Although the company trades at a below-market valuation, even more importantly it currently trades at a strong discount to the quality premium that the market has historically awarded their shares. As a result, Target Corp. offers an above-market dividend yield of 2. 1%. That has grown on average, by close to 20% per annum since calendar year 1999.During the five yearsÃ¢â ¬â¢ time frame, the earnings growth of 10. 6% remains consistent with TargetÃ¢â¬â¢s longer-term historical growth achievements. The fact that TargetÃ¢â¬â¢s price (the black line) is touching its intrinsic value (the orange line) illustrates that there exists good value in their shares. Projections The consensus of 19 analysts reporting to Standard & PoorÃ¢â¬â¢s Capital IQ expect Target to grow earnings at the rate of 10% in fiscal 2013, 15% in fiscal 2014, and 12% thereafter out to calendar year 2018 (see Chg/Yr at the bottom of the graph).If these estimates were to prove true, then a current position in Target offers the potential to generate returns in excess of 13% per annum over the next five years. d. Strategic key factors (SKFs) Compared together, Wal-Mart and Target are very close competitors. They are all retail-variety discount stores making their existence known throughout the world, except Target, is newer in the global market. These companies are constantly vying for the reputation as the lowest priced retailer.In the competitive profile matrix, the most critical success factor would be advertising Target does a lot more advertising then Wal-Mart and Kmart. Price competitiveness, Wal-Mart, remains above all competitors. Product quality, TargetÃ¢â¬â¢s products tend to be top brand products. Customer loyalty many people prefer better products no matter how much it costs, especially if they get other benefits they might not get elsewhere, such as, customer service, store cleanness, more visual organization appeal, etc. _____________________________________________________________________________________ V. Long Term Objectives and Strategies 1. Objectives * The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s long-term objective is to attain $100 billion or more in sales and $8. 00 or more in earnings per share by 2017. * Target plans to donate more than $500 million by the end of 2015 to support education, doubling its support to-date, for a total of more than $1 billion. The financial commitment is part of TargetÃ¢â¬â¢s new reading initiative, Target Read With MeSM, aimed at helping more U.S. children read proficiently by the end of third grade. As part of the initiative, Target also announced a reading pledge, a donation of up to 2 million books to kids in need, and plans for an innovative reading center that will reach communities across the country through a physical and virtual presence. 2. Strategies * Target has partnered with other fast-food chains like Taco Bell and Pizza Hut, again to cater to consumer desires for food while they shop, hoping to increase same store sales.The fact that Target has been able to infiltrate the urban market at a much better rate than Wal-Mart has helped to make these strategic partnerships successful. * TargetÃ¢â¬â¢s efficient marketing, multi-channel strategy, product innovation, compelling pricing strategy, and new merchandise assortments, should drive comparable-store sales and operating margins in the lo ng term. We expect the company to gain market share, and believe that more focus on consumable items should boost sales and earnings in a sluggish consumer environment. ______________________________________________________________________________________ VI.Implementing Strategy Integral to the success of the corporate strategy is what the company prides itself in the most, itÃ¢â¬â¢s pioneering nature in store design. Target designs their stores to be easy and intuitive to shop, with related departments conveniently placed next to each other (decor next to home improvement, toys next to sporting goods) and a Ã¢â¬Å"racetrackÃ¢â¬ central aisle to speed you on your way. They also work hard to make sure the shopping experience is consistently enjoyable, with a clean environment, friendly team members and feel-good details on all sides. This commitment to excellence, to stylish and chic, yet affordable items presented with the user in mind has allowed the company to gain and maint ain a strong foothold in the industry, carving out its own niche and distinguishing it from competitors. The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s strategy has also allowed Target to remain flexible and able to change significantly with its consumers, allowing it to seek substantial growth opportunities in various branches and extensions of the brand. Targets performance can be attributed to many things, including a corporate decision to follow a path of brand extension and cautioned expansion.Target has created a corporate culture conducive to a constant call of innovation and a group of people who are committed to the success of the brand. Target employees praise the Ã¢â¬Å"flexibleÃ¢â¬ corporate structure that offers Ã¢â¬Å"frequent chances for promotion. 1. Functional Areas a. Management Most directors have established a good working relationship with one another through previous business dealings. They are educated and successful business people and all directors and staff. Strong Management Lea dership in Target CorporationÃ¢â¬â¢s executive office that provides leadership for all divisions.The divisions are encouraged to share advances in technology and coordinate purchasing and financial management. Target Corporation has experienced accelerated growth in sales and earnings under the management leadership of Robert Ulrich, Chair ; CEO. b. Marketing The Marketing Planning team identifies marketing opportunities and develops integrated marketing campaigns. Additional responsibilities include writing creative blueprints, developing media plans, overseeing project execution and managing budgets.The Marketing Creative team communicates the Target brand through various advertising media and campaign strategies including in-store marketing, promotions and packaging. c. Human Resource TargetÃ¢â¬â¢s philosophy is an example of the resource based perspective of strategic human resource management (HRM), in which a firmÃ¢â¬â¢s collective human resources are believed to have im plications for firm performance and provide a unique source of competitive advantage that is difficult to replicate. The formal mission of TargetÃ¢â¬â¢s HR organization is to Ã¢â¬Å"drive company performance by building a fast, fun, and friendly team committed to excellence. To fulfill this mission, over the past four years the HR function has translated TargetÃ¢â¬â¢s competitive strategy into four core HR strategies and processes in the following areas: * Organizational culture * Staffing * Employee development * Employee retention d. Strategy and Research The Strategy and Research group explores new business opportunities, strengthens existing business relationships, and applies consumer insight to marketing messages. The Market Research team analyzes shopping behavior through focus group interviews and observation.The Strategy team uses the resulting data along with other tools to recommend changes regarding product mix, content, display and marketing. Target gives back to th e community * Target ranked No. 22 in Fortune Magazine's Ã¢â¬Å"World's Most Admired CompaniesÃ¢â¬ for 2010, largely in part to the donation efforts of the company as a whole. * Target donates around 5 percent of its pre-tax operating profit; it gives over $3 million a week to the communities in which it operates. * Target gives a percentage of charges from its Target Visa to schools designated by the cardholders.To date, Target has given over $150 million to schools across the United States. * Target House complex in Memphis, Tennessee, a long-term housing solution for families of patients at the city's St. Jude Children's Research Hospital. The corporation led the way with more than $27 million in donations, which made available 96 fully furnished apartments for families needing to stay at St. Jude over 90 days. * Target donates to local Salvation Army chapters through its grant program and annually to the United Way of America. * During disasters, Target has been a major benef actor for relief efforts.It also allowed its store properties in the affected area to be used as command centers for relief organizations. * Target will often donate its unused, returned or seasonal merchandise (particularly clothing) to Goodwill Industries. Bibliography Ã¢â¬Å"Capstone Analysis: Target. Ã¢â¬ Capstone Analysis: Target. N. p. , n. d. Web. 25 Mar. 2013. Carnevale, Chuck. Ã¢â¬Å"Target Corp Offers Solid Value And An Above Market Yield. Ã¢â¬ Forbes. Forbes Magazine, 15 Mar. 2013. Web. 27 Mar. 2013. Ã¢â¬Å"Corporate Fact Sheet. Ã¢â¬ Fact Sheet: Quick Facts About Target. N. p. , n. d. Web. 4 Mar. 2013. Ã¢â¬Å"Target Corporation. Ã¢â¬ Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 23 Mar. 2013. Web. 23 Mar. 2013. Ã¢â¬Å"The History of Corporate. Ã¢â¬ Target Corporation. N. p. , n. d. Web. 23 Mar. 2013. Ã¢â¬Å"Target Corporate: Social Responsibility, Careers, Press, Investors. Ã¢â¬ Target Corporate: Social Responsibility, Careers, Press, Investors. N. p. , n. d. Web. 24 Mar. 2013. Ã¢â¬Å"Target Corporation: Company Analysis and Evaluation. Ã¢â¬ Yahoo! Contributor Network. N. p. , n. d. Web. 25 Mar. 2013. Ã¢â¬Å"WikiWealth. Ã¢â¬ Target (TGT) SWOT Analysis -. N. p. , n. d. Web. 24 Mar. 2013
Friday, August 30, 2019
Every child has a hero, someone he looks up to, someone he tries to be like in every way possible. His hero may be his mom or dad, or Spiderman or Batman. Even today as teenagers we still have heroes; even parents have heroes. A hero is defined as Ã¢â¬Å"a person, who is admired or idealized for courage, outstanding achievements, or noble qualities. (dictionary. com)Ã¢â¬ My hero is Drew Chadwick of Emblem3. Drew is my hero because he has the qualities I value in a person; they include a humble and inspirational outlook, a true talent for music, and the genius mind behind Team Inspire.Drew has a humble outlook on life and an inspiring message he tries to spread, which is one of the reasons he is my hero. His motto in life is very different from most boys; his motto is Ã¢â¬Å"Namaste. Ã¢â¬ According to Drew, it means Ã¢â¬ËI honor the place in you where the universe resides, and when I am in that place and when you are in that place, we are one. Ã¢â¬â¢ Last year was very diffi cult for me; personally I went through a rough time and his outlook inspired me to get through it. Drew went through the same thing I did.Sharing his story and message showed me sometimes its ok, not to be okay. DrewÃ¢â¬â¢s music is unlike something you would normally hear on the radio. His lyrics come from his heart and his experiences. He leaves his heart and soul out on the stage when he performs. DrewÃ¢â¬â¢s lyrics are easily relatable and have helped me through the most challenging times. From Ã¢â¬Å"The Boy Who Was Torn ApartÃ¢â¬ to Ã¢â¬Å"True FriendsÃ¢â¬ there is something in the lyrics that I can relate to. His words inspire me to be a better person every day.Lastly, Drew us one of the master minds behind Team Inspire. It amazes me that he is a part of such an inspirational movement. Ã¢â¬Å"Team Inspire Project is a movement dedicated to bringing conscious awareness worldwide through the power of inspiration. By encouraging young people to tap into their highest p otential, Team Inspire believes they can change the world one mind at a time. Ã¢â¬ When Drew is not touring he spends his time working with Team Inspire. Personally, I am a member of a Team Inspire.A few things I do with Team Inspire are local beach cleanups and participate in workshops that show better and healthier ways to live. Through the work of Team Inspire I along with Drew and others are learning how to change the world one mind at a time. This summer I had the chance to meet my hero and was able to tell him how much he meant to me and inspired me. Everyone has a hero and my hero is Drew Chadwick. DrewÃ¢â¬â¢s humble and inspirational outlook, true talent for music, and genius mind behind Team Inspire make him my perfect hero.
Thursday, August 29, 2019
Mentorship in Nursing - Essay Example One element shall be highlighted Ã¢â¬â infection control Ã¢â¬â in order to gain depth of analysis required at the academic level. Reflection on the infection control for these students will be evaluated in terms of policy, professional literature, and theoretical concepts that relate to my role as an assessor. I would also identify what I have learned as a result of this process and make the recommendations for my future practice as a mentor. Gibbs Reflection Description As an assessor I had the opportunity to observe other students and even myself in terms of how infection control measures were being undertaken and fulfilled. During my observation, I have discovered that many students were not complying with infection control measures. Some were not washing their hands before and after each nursing intervention, and some were not practicing aseptic techniques during the implementation of interventions. As such, the risk of transferring bacteria from one patient to another incr eased. At one point, I observed a student I was mentoring (student A) coming from a patient with pneumonia and as she was about to administer medication to another patient without washing her hands, I called her attention. At which point, she went to wash her hands. As an assessor, I noted the infection control techniques being carried out (or not being carried out) by the students, and the common errors in infection control practices. At some point, I had to call the studentÃ¢â¬â¢s attention, reminding her of her hand washing as well as infection control strategies. After which, the student became more aware and vigilant of her actions. I also assessed some of the studentÃ¢â¬â¢s hand washing techniques and found out that some of them did not practice hand washing correctly. I then called their attention on proper techniques in hand washing. Feelings I felt that in making my assessment of infection control practices that nurses need to be more aware of their actions, and I felt that with lesser experience as is often the case for students, infection control can be simply forgotten. I felt however that with a greater awareness and with continued practice and experience, it is possible for students to eventually hone their skills in infection control and to eventually make it an unconscious part of their clinical practice. I felt anxious about my menteeÃ¢â¬â¢s actions because I was concerned about her causing more harm than good to her patients, especially when she comes from a patient with a contagious disease. I felt that it would not be healthy and fair to the patient to experience hospital-acquired infection because of her incompetence, lack of vigilance and awareness, or because of her limited knowledge and skills. In calling the studentÃ¢â¬â¢s attention on proper hand washing techniques, I felt nervous about correcting her and I also did not feel very confident in reminding her of the proper techniques in hand washing. However, I felt more confiden t in carrying out this responsibility when I was armed with the appropriate knowledge on infection control. At times, my mentee was not too receptive to the criticism and correction but she eventually understood the importance of the correction. I felt good about how the event turned out and how I was able to provide guidance to my mentee and I felt more confident as a future mentor after I carried out the task. Evaluation In assessing the incident, I found out that
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
English - Assignment Example The two presidents talked in length of their commitment to ensuring that there were peace, justice and security for the people of Middle East. The two countries bank on their strong bilateral cooperation to aid in a successful working relation. Another key issue dealt with was on the issue of terrorism. Qatar as emerged as one country in the Middle East that committed to the course of fighting terrorism. They act as mediators and diplomats around the world. The two presidents agreed that military action alone cannot eliminate terrorism. The Qatar president talked about terrorism as being a case of hopelessness and not a problem of Islam. In sum, the presidents looked at ways of dealing with real issues causing terrorism and the establishment of peace in the Middle East. They noted that terrorism requires a strategic approach, courage among leaders and that tyrant leaders should be held accountable. All people including Arabs should be ready to contribute in the fight (Al-Thani,
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
Global Financing and Exchange Rate Mechanisms Paper - Essay Example The most prominent international financial institutions are the IMF, the World Bank, ADB and the WTO. International Monetary Fund (IMF) plays a major role while rebuilding and stabilizing the monetary and pecuniary conditions of its member states. IMF achieves this objective by offering supportive loans while working out counteractive strategies. Apart of it, IMF also supports its defaulter member countries and their funding partners to ease out methodical development for liability streamlining by implementing and taking necessary measures1 (IMF Fact sheet, 2006). Thus, IMF plans to offer financial and monetary services while providing its member states with sufficient opportunities so as to employ regulatory guiding principles and transformation for reinstating environment while guaranteeing to strap and protract economic augmentation and societal venture. These courses of actions show a discrepancy while craving on member's state of affairs together with the source of the monetary related tribulations. Apart from above stated functions of IMF, this monetary institution also supports to develop the obligatory liability r
Monday, August 26, 2019
Regional Economic Integration (BLOBAL BUSINESS) - Essay Example Custom unions are similar to free trade area, but differ in the idea of treating non-member states. Unlike free trade area where each member nation has the autonomy to decide how to deal with non-member countries, custom unions promote uniform treatment of non-member nations by all member countries. A perfect example of common union is the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC). Common market on the other hand permits for the development of economically incorporated markets between member nations. It involves the abolition of trade barriers, capital and labour flow limitations and promotes the formation of common trade policies for dealing with non-members. Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA) (Kyambalesa and Houngnikpo 79) is an epitome of common market. Lastly, an economic union refers to an economic agreement formed between countries that involves abolition of trade barriers and implementation of common trade policies, for example the European Union (EU). Regional integration creates trade and employment opportunities for member states and also promotes cooperation between them. However, regional integration may also jeopardize national sovereignty, leads to shift in employment and thwarts diversification in
Sunday, August 25, 2019
Peer-reviewed journal article - Essay Example In this study, the authors predict that exercise-induced arterial hypertension might portend negative influences on the athleteÃ¢â¬â¢s cardiac function, while it might also play a significant role in the exercise induced cardiac fatigue. There is a significant association between endurance sport and cardiac injury, where long-term training could result in myocardial fibrosis, arterial fibrillation, arrhythmias, and sudden cardiac arrest (Leischik et al., 2014). The authors selected a sample of (n=51) male triathletes who had either completed the long distance Ironman triathlon (n=34) or the middle distance Ironman triathlon (n=17). The participants were also selected on the basis of having completed two years of training. The study used spiroergometry and echocardiography in determining the steady state blood pressure, anaerobic/aerobic thresholds, and the left ventricular mass of the selected participants (Leischik et al., 2014). The probability of hypertrophy and elevated blood pressure among the participants were calculated using odds ration analysis. Each triathlete was assessed in 2011 and 2012 using echocardiography and spiroergometry in succession. The spiroergometry involved a phased stress test after successful volume and gas calibration between the phases. The echocardiographic analysis was conducted using the American Society of Echocardiography recommendations for muscle mass and the modified Simpson method for ESV and EDV (Lei schik et al., 2014). The authors actually found that myocardial hypertrophy is dependent on exercise-induced arterial hypertension, confirming that there was a hypertensive response in athletes as a result of exercise. The athletes with exercise-induced arterial hypertension also showed increased left ventricular mass at 205g/m2, especially in comparison to athletes without exaggerated response in BP to exercise who had a left ventricular mass of 143g/m2 (Leischik et al, 2014). In addition, the findings also show that systolic
Saturday, August 24, 2019
Two Party System - Essay Example The two-party system in American politics has created both opportunities and constraints. The two party system creates a number of opportunities. First, the two party system in America is among the most stable political systems in the world. Under the two-party system, the United States has been peaceful and politically stable as opposed to countries with the multi-party system. Secondly, the system is simple and easy for the voters to select their leaders. Voters in the United States only require following the manifestos and strategies of the two parties and choose their leaders under the two parties. The two- party system creates simplicity in understanding, following and voting leaders for the two parties (Janda et al. 23). However, the two party system being exercised in the U.S. creates more constraints than opportunities. For instance, the two party system limits the choice and options of the American voters in the process of selecting their leaders. Unlike in the multiparty system, voters in the two party system are restricted to choose or vote their leaders from only two parties. For this reason, other potential leaders who may be more efficient and appropriate than the selected ones lack opportunity to be selected in the general elections. Secondly, the system is slowly killing democracy in the U.S. People in America are guided by the opinions and decisions made by leaders from either Republic or Democratic parties. The limitation of opinions, options, and decisions leads to marginalization of some people. The system has led to poor governance and lack of accountability among the elected leaders. Although leaders are found to be unaccountable of public finances, their political parties support th em, thus increasing the level of corruption and unaccountability in the U.S (Janda et al. 23). The founding of the American politics had various perceptions of political parties. For
Friday, August 23, 2019
Property Cycle - Research Paper Example Recent studies have shown that fluctuations in property cycle produces economic adversity to certain areas such as property, finance, socio-economic performance and have profound international impacts (Cedic Pugh and Alireza, 2001). The recent economic and financial crisis developed in ASEAN countries on the overheated property investments is suspected to be the main cause for this. Though valuation theorists traditionally ignored cycles arising from the predictability of this area of study in their valuation frameworks and models, similar to that of many social sciences (Born and Pyhrr, 1994; Pyhrr, Born, Robinson and Lusac, 1996), many studies support the relevancy of these cycles, for instance Institution of Charted Quantity Surveyor of United kingdom prepared a printed document for its members specifically addressing the practical implication of Britain's property cycles. Stepen A. Pyhrr, Stephen E. Roulac and Waldo L. Born (1999) tracing back to the happenings of early 1930s, provided a fairy exhaustive review and laid a good foundation for the body of knowledge of development of property cycles. Figure 2 represents a briefed summary of their work. Nikolai Kondratiett in 1928 noticed severe economic depressions in Russian economy that occurred regularly at 45 to 60 year span. These depressions followed by another long surge of business activities resulted in new peaks of economic outputs and prosperities (Stoken, 1993, cited in Stephen et al 1999). Depressions of this nature often referred to as recessions seemed to occur during 25 to 35 year up cycle period. Similarly in the west, Mitchell (1927, cited in Stephen et al 1999) suggested theoretical foundation and provided an empirical evidence for cyclical economic activities in U.S... Further works of many writers such as Schumpeter, Forrester and Rostow added more potency to this idea. Other highly noticeable studies on cycles came from Roy Wenzlick who studied the long cycles of
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Violation Early Childhood Code of Ethics - Research Paper Example Secondly, it also discusses some of the appropriate ways that could be taken to avoid such a violation. One of the most challenging ethical issues while dealing with children is food. Ms. Devan, an early childhood development teacher was implicated in an ethical case whereby the parents argued that she went beyond her ethical boundaries by allowing children to used food as playing tools. Precisely, Ms. Devan was using pudding as finger paint while teaching children how to paint. According to her, they preferred using edible pudding as finger paint since they discovered that the children were putting it on their mouth. Although there are ethical codes demanding that the health of the children should be given the first priority, she preferred using food pudding since it was safer than finger paint (Swim & Freeman, 2008). Although her actions were well intentioned, so many ethical questions are raised from such an action. For instance, the children developed a habit of licking the puddi ng paint directly from the table. This is certainly not hygienic. However, it is better compared to swallowing the regular finger paint that is sold commercially. The ethical case came into the limelight when one of the childÃ¢â¬â¢s mothers scolded her child for licking sandwich jelly that had spilled on the table at home. When she asked the child, the child affirmed that their teacher let them do it at school. Certainly, the child had learned a different thing from what was initially intended. The parent was worried that the teacher was not exercising the children code of ethics. The teacher also failed to realize that children could have learned that playing materials are good for consumption. This is certainly a violation of early childhood code of ethics, which demands that children be taught the right code of behavior especially during this important stage of cognitive development. Actually, the parent was even more worried that the teacher was wasting food while there were t housands of other children all over the world dying of hunger. Some of the ethical concerns raised from the situation demand a critical thought and consideration. Was the teacher acting safe by allowing children to play with food? Was it safe for the children after all? Did the teacher think about other lessons learned in the process? So many questions of ethical concern can be raised from this case. Undeniably, there is no clear cut difference between what should be done or what should not be done. This is even made more complicated because of the differences in ethical values between different stakeholders. Early childhood codes of ethics may not suffice enough to handle such ethically complicated issues. According to National Association for the Education of Young Children, it is necessary Ã¢â¬Å"To create and maintain safe and healthy settings that foster childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s social, emotional, intellectual, and physical development and that respect their dignity and their contribu tionsÃ¢â¬ (2012). It is evident from the ethical principle that the teacher failed to maintain healthy settings, failed to consider the overall social development of the childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior, as well as intellectual development. Needless to say, there are several measures that can be taken to avoid similar ethical violations. Firstly, the teachers need to expand their knowledge on childhood cognitive development. This would enable the teacher to make better decisions when choosing
School days Essay I feel wow pleased to write for Carmel times this time, not as a Ã¢â¬ËStudentÃ¢â¬â¢. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s really a thrilling experience to write about the Ã¢â¬ËGolden School daysÃ¢â¬â¢. Those were the days which I am missing since half an year. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s all due to the love and affection which I received from my alma mater, my second home, my school. Realization of the universal truth, I must say, Ã¢â¬Å"School is our second homeÃ¢â¬ is indeed a mixed feeling. It brings happiness on my face as I have been made very strong and fit enough to survive in the competitive would ahead an d at the same time, brings tears to my eyes because of the fact that I wonÃ¢â¬â¢t get to live Ã¢â¬Ëthose days Ã¢â¬Ë again. Ã¢â¬ËSchool daysÃ¢â¬â¢ is indeed a vast topic to write. I start my day by praying y due respect to the principal, Fr. Mathew, who is the source of inspiration and moral strength for all of us. I express my sincere thanks and gratitude to all my dear teachers, who took the place of parent and shaped the piece of mud. School days were all of fun. It wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t merely classes of various subjects, exams, and results but also the beginning of my life is a student. Teachers not only taught the lessons but also sharpened our abilities and cultivate excellent values through each and every word they taught. The flowers in the farm of their word adorned the creeper of my life. I learnt English, arts, plays of great writers with the same enthusiasm with which I had learnt Ã¢â¬Å"A B C DÃ¢â¬â¢ from my pre-primary teachers. Starting with the numbers, mathÃ¢â¬â¢s always seemed a magic till the end. Learning my mother tongue, Marathi in a convenient school was a thrilling experience . ti is simply impossible to forget the Hindi and Sanskrit classes. Science connected me with past happiness and Geography took me across the globe indeed. Other than academics subjects my school provided me all opportunities of all extra Ã¢â¬â curricular activities. I was guided, inspired and at the same time my ears pulled when I did something wrong and was brought back to the path of goodness. It is needless to express my gratitude towards all my friends and classmates. They were the one who made my days wow enjoyable and memorable. They always stood with me through thick and thin and gave the warmth of real friendship and brotherhood keeping aside all our likes and dislikes. Playing with them, having lunch with them, but chatting was all of fun. Many misunderstandings and contradiction took place but they were all to make the bond between us more strongerÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. So, thereÃ¢â¬â¢s lot to write but I take a Pause what I want to tell you is, live your School days to the maximum. Store all what is good and see the change in your life. Respect and obey all your teachers for they always wish and pray for your betterment. Keep a healthy atmosphere among all your classmates which will help you in your tears, mould your personality and indeed a great success, live each how of these days. Piyush mundada.
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Capital budgeting techniques: Sensitivity and Scenario analysis Graphically show and explain the following terms, how you could link them to capital budgeting techniques in your decision making (1000 words) Sensitivity analysis Scenario analysis Sensitivity Analysis Sensitivity analysis is a Ã¢â¬Ëwhat ifÃ¢â¬â¢ tool that examines the effect of increase or decrease in a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s net profit. Sensitivity analysis can help in answering question like Ã¢â¬ËWhat would be the forecasted net income if sales are increased or decreased by 30%, 20% or 10%. Sensitivity analysis is frequently used in capital budgeting for determining how sensitive an NPV analysis is to changes in variable assumptions. While conducting analysis, each variable is fixed except one and by changing this one variable, the effect on NPV or IRR can be viewed. The first step in performing a sensitivity analysis is building a base case scenario. This is typically the NPV using assumptions which are believed to be accurate. From this point various assumptions can be changed which had initially been based on potential assumptions. NPV is then recalculated and the sensitivity of NPV based on the change in assumptions is determined. Scenario Analysis Scenario analysis is a process of analysing decisions by considering alternative possible outcomes. Scenario analysis is designed to see the consequences of an action under different set of factors. Scenario analysis takes sensitivity analysis a step further. Rather than just looking at the sensitivity of the NPV analysis to changes in the variable assumptions, scenario analysis also looks at the probability distribution of the variables. Like sensitivity analysis, scenario analysis starts with the construction of a base case scenario. From there other scenarios are considered known as the Ã¢â¬Ëbest caseÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬Ëworst caseÃ¢â¬â¢ scenario. Probabilities are assigned to the scenarios and computed to arrive at an expected value. Capital Budgeting and Use of Sensitivity and Scenario Analysis Capital budgeting is the process of analysing a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s investment decisions such as investing in new equipment, machineries, plants, projects and products. This process involves the estimation of the expected cash flows, the calculation of the Net Present Value (NPV) and the calculation of the Internal Rate of Return (IRR) of the investment. NPV is defined as the present value of all cash inflows minus the present value of all cash outflows. If NPV is positive, the investment is making money and is thus viable. IRR is defined as the discount rate that makes the NPV zero. If IRR is greater than the opportunity cost of capital then the investment is feasible. There are two obstacles involved in the capital budgeting process. One involves the correct estimation of expected cash flow. The other is the use of correct discount rate also known as the project cost of capital. Capital budgeting is by definition, forward looking. When dealing with expected resources and demands, uncertainty is a major factor. Sensitivity analysis is a statistical tool that determines how consequential deviations from the expected value occur. Capital Budgeting example XYZ Water Filtration Plant needs to construct a new water filtration plant to filter 20 million litre water and deliver to consumers. An assessment should be carried out to evaluate the economics of the project and determine which parameter is sensitive to investment value, also to establish a sales price. Market price of water is $4 $5 per litre therefore, four different water price scenarios would need to be analysed to reach the best economic parameter, they are: $4, $4.25, $4.5 and $4.75. The selection criteria would be based on: NPV Cost of Capital 15% IRR Analysis and Comparison of Alternatives Preliminary data and estimation Table 1: Project Information Table 2: Baseline Cash flow calculation Baseline cash flow and NPV are calculated as follows: Table 3: Sensitivity Analysis Calculation In sensitivity analysis, each variable is changed one at a time to analyse its impact on the end result. In this case the impact of 10% increase or decrease in revenue, capital investment and operational cost is considered on the NPV. From table 3, a sensitivity graph can be plotted as follows: Based on above sensitivity analysis, it is evident that the revenue by terms of price is the main variable that is affecting NPV. Hence the economic optimization and evaluation will be based on parameter water price. Using formula in the spreadsheet, following can be obtained: Table 4: Water Sales Price Scenario Selection of preferred alternative From table 4, we can conclude that best scenario is at water price $4.74 per litre, refer to criteria NPV, IRR and Payout Time. Then the project is worth doing, with the water price $4.75 per litre resulting NPV>0, IRR>MARR and payout time less than five years. Benefits of using Sensitivity Analysis Sensitivity and scenario analysis in useful in capital budgeting techniques for a number of reasons, including: It supports decision making or the development of recommendations for decision makers such as testing the robustness of a result. Financial model makers can effectively communicate with the decision makers for example, by making recommendations more credible, understandable and compelling. Increases understanding of relationships between input and output variables. It helps the investor to maintain their risk comfort level. Once projections are made concerning a specific investment, it can be decided whether risk should be taken for the worst case scenario. SOURCE http://businessplanhut.com/what-sensitivity-analysis-example-and-components-involved Source: Boundless. Ã¢â¬Å"Scenario Analysis.Ã¢â¬ Boundless Finance. Boundless, 03 Jul. 2014. Retrieved 27 Apr. 2015 from https://www.boundless.com/finance/textbooks/boundless-finance-textbook/the-role-of-risk-in-capital-budgeting-12/scenario-and-simulation-assessments-99/scenario-analysis-427-7232/ http://www.assakkaf.com/courses/ence 627/lectures/chapter5.pdf http://www.spreadsheetml.com/finance/capitalbudgeting.shtml http://www.slideshare.net/ranasingh0820/sensitivity-amp-scenario-analysis https://kristal2011aace.wordpress.com/2011/09/22/w2_adi_the-gas-plant/#comments
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Personal Constructs Theory (PCT) Analysis Personal Constructs Theory Ã¢â¬â A Systematic Study Title/Abstract In this study we aim to provide an analysis of a subjectÃ¢â¬â¢s problems using the Personal Constructs Theory (PCT) suggested by Kelly. The subject is a 35 year old female full time employee working in the same company as the researcher and has shown no barriers to construing. The subjectÃ¢â¬â¢s problems with her relationships have been determined using the Repertory grid interview and we discuss results and provide an analysis of the findings following the interview and data collection. The interview was done to identify elements within the clientÃ¢â¬â¢s relationships and all interview limitations have been considered for the study. We provide an analysis of Personal Constructs Theory in general giving a brief overview of its main premises and principles and then move on to its applications including the Grid interview technique on our client. We discuss the results and analyse the findings accordingly. Introduction George KellyÃ¢â¬â¢s Personal Construct Theory (PCT) emphasises that the world is Ã¢â¬ËperceivedÃ¢â¬â¢ by a person according to the meaning the person applies to it and the person has the freedom to choose a meaning according to what he or she wants (Kelly, 1955). Thus a person has the freedom to choose a meaning in terms of which he perceives the world and can apply alternative constructions or meanings to his past, present and future events. Thus a person is not a victim of his events but can liberate himself from unpleasant events by reinterpreting and redefining them. According to Kelly (1955) PCT attempts to explain why a man does what he does and is a theory about Ã¢â¬Ëhow the human process flows, how it strives in new directions as well as in old, and how it may dare for the first time to reach into the depths of newly perceived dimensionsÃ¢â¬â¢ Kelly states that a Ã¢â¬Ëpersons processes are psychologically channelized by the ways in which he anticipate the eventsÃ¢â¬â¢(1955). Here, the subject is the process and the individual is a behaving organism who may need an external force to initiate an event. The processes include those of self-definition and relationships with others, and how we interpret events around us as well as the events we perceive and tasks at hand (Kelly 1955). Kelly based his theory of PCT on Ã¢â¬Ëman as the scientistÃ¢â¬â¢ model and the basic points were as follows: the individual creates his or her own ways of seeing the world and interprets events according to how he perceive them the individual builds percepts and constructs; these constructs are organized into systems, or group of constructs which embody relationships; two or more systems may contain the same events, yet the events are separate from any of the systems; any individualÃ¢â¬â¢s systems have a definite foci The term construct is a concept that represents the view a person has constructed about the world as he experiences it. Constructs also represent the way a person is likely to construe the world and the construct system as a whole represents the history and predisposition to perceive the world in a particular way. Kelly also distinguished between social reality, individual reality and communality. Individuality denotes that every individual differ from each other in how they construct or perceive the world, communality refers to the underlying similarities or common elements in perception and how the construction of experience in one person is similar to that of another (Kelly, 1955). Social reality is perception of how one person construes the construction processes of another person and how they are involved in a social role. Personal construct theory has been used in several sociological and scientific disciplines and it has been emphasised that social reality and communality should be considered along with the individual or personal reality and both have to be considered together in developing an understanding of the psychological processes (Dalton, 1992). The theory of Personal Constructs, points out that it is our personal psychological constructs that make the world predictable. We use construct systems to help in perception of the world and respond to all situations according to these perceptions. Our construct systems help us to make sense of the world, to make it predictable, to draw conclusions about causes and effects and we learn from experiences and adjust our behaviour accordingly (Fransella, 1995). Kelly wrote that the construct systems influence our expectations and perceptions and reflect our past experiences according to which we shape our future expectations. For example since we known from our past experiences that winters are cold, we would take adequate measures of protection during winter because we expect winters to be cold. However according to Kelly, our construct systems grow and change and are not static and are either confirmed or challenged when we are conscious. We adapt and immunise our constructs according to the situation and alter our feelings according to our experiences. We also tend to think and react according to our construct systems and some constructs represent values and key relationships which are difficult to change and fixed whereas some other constructs are less complex and more flexible and adaptive. The truth about the world as understood and experienced determines the nature of the construct system. Construct systems are not generally judged according to any objective truth and depend on an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s personal feelings, perceptions and choices (Dalton, 1992). One individualÃ¢â¬â¢s construct system may be different from anotherÃ¢â¬â¢s and when there is a general disagreement in constructs, it is generally denoted by prejudice or preconception. Although conflicts and differences of opinions are unpleasant, these events help us to understand differences in people and help us to learn how other people perceive things (Stevens, 1996). However construct systems change and may not be altogether internally consistent. People may react or perceive things differently even in similar circumstances and this is normal as there is a certain degree of internal inconsistency in perception of events. Distortions of judgement due to internal inconsistency of personal constructs can be harmful for a person as he may suffer from personal distress. The extent to which one person can appreciate and react to another personÃ¢â¬â¢s constructs is a measure of empathy or how one perceives another (Banister, 1985). One personÃ¢â¬â¢s construct system may be markedly different from another personÃ¢â¬â¢s constructs yet one should be able to infer the other personÃ¢â¬â¢s construct in order to empathise and develop a sense of social oneness and responsibility. KellyÃ¢ â¬â¢s theory is one of the most effective theories in social research and helps to provide a psychological explanation of social similarities and differences. The applications of KellyÃ¢â¬â¢s theory of Personal constructs are wide and varied as it helps to provide mathematical representations of constructs systems. Construct systems are multidimensional mathematical models and a personÃ¢â¬â¢s language is used to classify his or her experiences. Kelly developed a number of mathematical models and representations of construct systems and tested hypotheses that followed from basic personal construct theory (Fransella and Bannister, 1977). To understand peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s personal construct systems the repertory Grid Interview technique was developed, also known as the Role Construct Repertory Test. The repertoire of constructs that a person develops represents some form of perception, judgement or evaluation and is always comparative. Thus judgement of anything good is in comparison with the concept of bad. Thus in using a Grid interview three elements are considered and then two are paired in contrast with a third. The theory of personal co nstructs can be applied to personal experiences and relationships and so parents, relations, friends, colleagues and the individual are largely responsible for the formation of constructs (Smith et al, 1995; Kalekin-Fishman et al, 1996). Kelly elicited a patientÃ¢â¬â¢s constructs, rated the different elements on the constructs and used the resultant grid to point out to the client what his primary problems or concerns were. This helped to decide which therapy would be important and helped to determine the progress and effectiveness of therapy. For example one could find the two elements in a personal relationship of a patient and his mother and use this technique to find out differences between a patientÃ¢â¬â¢s perception of himself and what his mother would like him to be. The patient would then be encouraged to provide a self description and work through means of making his relationship with his mother more pleasant and productive. If there are paranoid elements recognised in a patientÃ¢â¬â¢s perception of himself or his relationships, appropriate therapeutic interventions are suggested. The Repertory Grid interviewing technique was developed by Kelly to overcome some of the methodological limitations of the interview method. The main steps of the Grid technique include Selecting a set of elements Ã¢â¬â this could be anything from relationships to issues and the elements could be people involved in these relationships with the client. The elements are taken in groups of three and the client is asked to pair two of them separating the third according to a special characteristic (Adams-Webber, 1983). Thus here the differentiation is done according to constructs determined by the client and is done on a bipolar scale with the interviewer setting up the question but the client determining the content (Anderson, 1987). The constructs are examined in some detail and after the interview the constructs are made into scales of 1-5 and the interviewee is expected to rate every element for every construct on this scale. The result is a matrix and this is then analysed statistically to show the client his problems and how they can be tackled. The statistical analysis helps to give measurements of individual people characteristics and compares peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s perceptions before and after the interview. The Grid is thus a statistical, and content free process and although the interviewer initiates its functions, it is the patient who drives it allowing him to come out with his own perceptions thus giving the process a freedom from any interviewer bias and allows complete transparency(Anderson, 1987). Since it is also a standardised interviewing technique any interviewer can read the interview and understand its implications. Russell and Cox (2003) and Morrison (1991) have stressed on the importance of repertory grid in the analysis of individual perceptions. Considering KellyÃ¢â¬â¢s constructivist alternativism, we can assume that all our present perceptions of the world could be subject to changes and revisions and accordingly our perceptions of people and subsequently our interpersonal relationships could also be changed according to this principle. Method A 35 year old female colleague, Marie Oliver was selected for the interview process. The client was having some relationship problems, especially with her work colleagues and has been showing maladjustment along with problems of anxiety, depression and lack of productivity at work. The participant was apprised of the purpose of the interviewing and was asked to participate suggesting that participation in the interview would help her in overcoming her personal problems. A Repertory Grid Interview was done and the first step was identifying elements or grid components. For this all the possible elements including people in relationships were identified. Thus elements are work colleagues known to the participant and to the researcher, and the participant used triad method with the elements to create constructs around any one chosen topic. Elements were then compared by asking participant to take 3 elements and ascertain where 2 are similar and 1 is different, and the participant was en couraged to continue until all possible combinations were exhausted of 3 elements from the set of 10. The instruction given in this case was , Ã¢â¬Ëchoose any three of these known people and group two of them together separating a possible third to show why two of them are similar and how they differ from the third person.Ã¢â¬â¢ This process was used to identify similarities and differences of individuals until the participant ran out of constructs. Several mini-grids were developed in advance to ensure that the participant was comfortable with the process of grid construction. Then the Participant followed the process, generated the first grid, to ascertain whether each element is more like the similarity pole or difference pole by marking with Ã¢â¬ËxÃ¢â¬â¢ or Ã¢â¬ËoÃ¢â¬â¢ respectively. The participant then generated a second grid to rate each element on each of the 10 constructs using 1-5 point scale, but presented the grid to experimenter without ratings, experimenter then created the final grid as the participant. The main aim and purpose of the interview was agreed with the participant and views about other work colleagues were thus taken. The participant was fully informed from outset regarding the possibility that the revelations from the Grid Interview could be unsettling for her. However for these purposes, participantÃ¢â¬â¢s consent form was also signed in advance and the constructs were then set up on the grid allowing to be revealed. In the process of the interview, the researcher made notes on participant behaviour and perceptions as verbally revealed. In this case, the participant Marie was asked to identify the elements in her workplace that could be considered in her relationships with colleagues. Marie identified 10 colleagues at her workplace and separated two of them as distinct from a third. The common points and the differences were noted. Each of the 10 constructs chosen were rated on a 1-5 scale and the grids were created with similarity and difference poles marked by x or an o. This was done in case of determining constructs and relationships with work colleagues. After the formation of a grid, an analysis was drawn up. Findings/Analysis The two assumptions of the Grid Interview by Kelly were as follows: 1. If we can identify an individuals construct map there is a strong possibility we can predict that individuals behaviour. 2. We may be able to modify an individuals map, and therefore behaviour, by some form of training. The two aspects of the Repertory Grid are 1. Elements which are the objects of an individuals thinking and to which they relate their concepts or values. These elements may be people with qualities like effective, unprofessional, etc or they may be objects or abstract, concrete concepts like the interview or a test 2. Constructs are the qualities used to describe the elements in our personal, individual relationships thus a person is effective because he has a pleasant relationship with his staff which reflects personal construct as applied to the element of an effective individual The main elements in an analysis when a grid is applied to an individual are: 1. The results relate to that individual alone 2. Only one grid has to be analysed for an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s report. 3. A grid scoring form is used to perform the analysis The Findings and Analysis help us to probe the following questions: To what extent was the study helpful in understanding the participantÃ¢â¬â¢s view of the topic of examination? Identification and justification of apparent areas of understanding and lack of understanding Is a pattern of understanding evident? How does the analysis link with the notes made prior to completing grids on expected areas of degree of understanding? What is the meaning revealed by the participantÃ¢â¬â¢s choice of elements and constructs? Do the elements and constructs reveal a similar or different view of the topic of analysis chosen? What does the degree of the match imply? Was the study any more helpful when conversation elaboration was also used as an extended method? Is some analysis of new understandings reached during feedback conversation helpful for the process? What do the notes and quotes as revealed by the client suggest? The findings are given as follows: (Mostly worked together with these individuals) Close agreement on 4, 5, 6 Ã¢â¬â elements Less agreement on 9 Ã¢â¬â element (Mostly worked separately with these individuals) Little agreement on 1,2,3,7,8,10- elements with different negative personal experiences working with E7 and E8 on particular projects. Close agreement on 6 Ã¢â¬â constructs (professional conduct). Upon discussion, views were similar regarding the meaning of professional conduct and who could be trusted. Less agreement on 1,3,4,5,7,9 Ã¢â¬â constructs. Upon discussion, researcher and client shared similar/same definitions of each construct. Little agreement on 2,8,10 constructs. Upon discussion, our definitions were different, hence our measurement of each element came from a different understanding of constructs. The elements identified by Marie were individuals at the workplace and Marie revealed that she worked closely with elements 4, 5 and 6 although had less agreement with element or colleague 9. Marie revealed that she has worked separately and had negative personal experiences with colleagues identified as elements 1, 2, 3, 7, 8 and 10 although she said she was working on the same project with two of these negatively perceived colleagues 7 and 8. Mari suggested a close agreement with 6 on professional conduct and said that her views with 6 were similar regarding professional conduct, friendships and trust issues as to who in the office should or should not be trusted. Marie suggested that her constructs were either in contrast to or were not compatible with those of 1, 3, 4, 5, 7 and 9 elements or colleagues identified. Marie and the researcher had some discussions on the nature and definition of particular perceptions and constructs and the general definition of these identified by th e researcher were similar to that of the subject. The subjectÃ¢â¬â¢s perceptions, feedback and opinions on the constructs were noted separately. Marie identified that two of the colleagues were friendly and amicable and compared with the other person who in contrast has been described as unfriendly and not easy to get along with. The Repertory Grid Scoring sheet is drawn as follows: The process of producing the Repertory Grid can be broken down into the following steps: Step One The participant Marie identifies ten colleagues whom she knows well. Among these ten colleagues Marie should go along well with at least two of them ideally. Step Two Ã¢â¬â Marie is given six pieces of card or paper on which she is asked to write the names of the people she has identified. These are the elements described. A number can also be added to the card/paper to signify description and added at the head of column on the scoring sheet. Alternatively, the name itself of the element identified can be entered on the scoring sheet as well. Step Three Ã¢â¬â Three cards are selected, for example 1, 2 and 3, and Marie is asked to identify some aspect related to these colleaguesÃ¢â¬â¢ behaviour which makes two of the three people selected different from the third. The construct word or phrase is written in the top left side of the vertical columns. In the top right side of the vertical columns is written the description of the person one who is different from the other two. This process of obtaining constructs from the three people is continued until no further constructs or perceived characteristics could be elicited from the participant. Step Four Ã¢â¬â Once the constructs have been completely elicited and entered on the scoresheet, the cards are returned. Each element person is then given a score on a scale of 1 to 5. A score of 1 or 2 is allocated to those who are suited to the description in the left-hand column, the column with the description of the pair. Scores of 5 or 4 are allocated to those who match with the description in the right-hand column, the description of the odd person out Step Five Ã¢â¬â A different set of three cards is then selected, cards 4, 5 and 6 and the process in steps 3 and 4 is repeated, ensuring that the description of pairs is recorded in the left-hand column and a score of 1 or 2 relates to the pairs similarity and score points of 4 and 5 relate to the description of the single person. A score of 3 is average score. A score of at least one 1 and one 5 is helpful when allocated usually from the set of three people for whom the constructs are being elicited. Step Six Ã¢â¬â Step five is repeated and the various combinations of the elements are aimed to be covered until the participants run out of perceived characteristics or constructs that could be entered on the card. After the grid consideration, the grid scoring sheet is used to record the views of the participant for each element against each construct which has been offered. The data collected is then subject to analysis. A manual analysis can generate and extract considerable information from the grid and all the constructs are related to the personal characteristics of each work colleague considered in the study by Marie. Step Seven Ã¢â¬â In this case study we consider the behavioural aspects of work colleagues of Marie which is related to their overall friendliness, therefore at the end of the grid Marie is asked to rate the elements in a single, given construct over a scale of friendly to unfriendly. The scoring for friendliness is then compared with other individual aspects to highlight differences and to provide indicators for friendliness. Step Eight Ã¢â¬â The scores for each construct are obtained by marking the difference for each element against the general friendliness figure. Step Nine Ã¢â¬â In this phase, we analyse the various constructs on the basis that if the score is low the aspect measured is significant in the ranking for friendliness It is the duty of interviewer to remain without any bias and to refrain from giving any suggestion to the participant on what constructs should be drawn. Forming the constructs is entirely dependent on the participant and the researcher has no role in its formation. They must be according to the thoughts and perceptions of the individual who is being interviewed in this case, Marie although the constructs must be clear, meaningful. Here the analyst has helped her in one or two cases when she couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t describe the construct and sought help of the analyst to come out with the right word. After the constructs are listed against the elements, the grid results are scored and are ready to be used for analysis. From the example used in this study -the aspects which go towards the behavioural skills of colleague at work, are identified as follows: Has empathy with other colleagues Has a proper work culture and attitude Has an ethical sense Is friendly and amicable Is knowledgeable and professional Always has a good style and appearance Is a team oriented person Is a leader in the group Comes out with fresh new ideas Is helpful and cooperative Discussion In this study we selected Marie Oliver, a 35 year old colleague who was suffering from some initial maladjustment in the workplace. Marie was asked to participate in the Repertory Grid Interview process to identify the reasons of her problems, categorise them and come out with possible suggestions. The approach taken was qualitative analysis by using the Personal Constructs theory developed by Kelly and a final analysis using scoring sheet and identifying elements through the Repertory Grid Interview technique. Marie was asked to select characteristics and constructs of persons in her workplace. She identified the most desirable and friendly characteristics in her colleagues against the least desirable ones. The notes taken during conversation with Marie reveal that Marie felt she got along only with a few colleagues only three as mentioned. There were basic differences in professional ethic and conduct with at least two colleagues she was working in collaboration with. The behaviour al skills Marie identified as important in defining her good relationship with the colleagues are empathic characteristics in others; any concept of an ideal colleague is also associated with being able to follow a proper work culture and having a proper attitude. Having an ethical sense, a sense of justice and being knowledgeable, professional with a good sense of humour are also identified as important characteristics in a proper friendly colleague. Marie indicated that being friendly, amicable and with good style and appearance has been noted in at least two of her colleagues and this is stark contrast to a third colleague she identified and with whom she doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t seem to get along. If we consider KellyÃ¢â¬â¢s perspective of constructive alternativism, it is possible to have alternative perceptions as our perceptions of the world depend completely on our personal constructs. Marie also identified leadership skills, helpfulness and cooperativeness, being able to come out with fresh ideas and following a proper work culture as important aspects of professional behaviour and gave high scores on these aspects to at least two of her colleagues. Overall, a Repertory Grid Interview on Marie showed that she has good and easygoing relations with two of her colleagues but doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t seem to go well with many of them. The negative implications of the findings which suggest why Marie did not get along with most of her colleagues and seem to show anxiety and depression symptoms as well as dissatisfaction with her workplace were revealed in her perception of constructs on most of her colleagues. Marie suggested that some of her colleagues were low on cooperativeness and helpfulness, friendliness and proper professional attitude making the atmosphere competitive and hostile. The dynamics of MarieÃ¢â¬â¢s actual relations with her colleagues were thus revealed usin g this Grid interviewing procedure and MarieÃ¢â¬â¢s own perception of her work situation, perception of her situation and role in the office, and perception of her relations with her colleagues and her job were also revealed through this study. As Morrison (1991) used the repertory grid technique to understand nursesÃ¢â¬â¢ perception of care and their evaluation of caring attitudes in nursing, MarieÃ¢â¬â¢s perception of her work culture could easily reveal her ideal understanding of a workplace and what she sought in her colleagues. Her inner constructs, precepts and how she saw the world as an individual were revealed and so were her expectations in the future. Considering MarieÃ¢â¬â¢s perceptions, some psychological counselling to improve her working and professional relationships was recommended. Limitations: The methodological limitations and concerns of interview as a means of knowing peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s construct system were many, as noted by Kelly. These are: Interview Bias Ã¢â¬â sometimes the interviewer and the school he belongs to whether behaviourist or psychoanalytic could determine the way the session goes and this undermines the objectivity and validity of the study Dependence on the interviewer Ã¢â¬â the role of the therapist should be minimal and the therapist should just be a tool to facilitate self perception according to Kelly. Most individuals have the capacity to understand his or her problems and any overdependence on the researcher should be avoided. There may be problems with measuring and predicting individual or group characteristics. Although psychology seeks to understand laws of human behaviour, large scale studies showing correlations of different behaviour may not be helpful for study of personal constructs which is based on the understanding of individuals or a small group of people. These methodological limitations have been kept in mind while conducting the interview and interviewer bias and any dependence on the interviewer has been kept to a minimum. Interviewer intervention has also been minimal. Conclusion: In this discussion, we set out with an overview of the Personal Constructs Theory proposed by Kelly (1955). We discussed the different tenets of the constructs theory, the inconsistency of personal constructs and how constructs tend to vary in different people or in same people in different situations. Thus situational factors seem important in constructs and perceptions on other people. Individual constructs form the construct systems and Kelly established the grid method to determine the different elements in a social situation that can be considered as responsible for an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s disturbed social relationships. In our study of Marie Oliver, a 35 year old employee, her social relationships and possible disturbances were studied using the Repertory Grid Interview technique and her analysis of good and bad characteristics of ten of her colleagues were indicated on the card given to her. The scores were drawn up and according to the analysis the desirable characteristics th at Marie perceived in some of her workmates and not in others, were found out. MarieÃ¢â¬â¢s behavioural problems and her unique relationships with her colleagues are then analysed suggesting whether Marie needed any further psychological help for her anxiety, depression and other work related maladjustments. Bibliography Kelly, George Alexander The psych
Monday, August 19, 2019
Different countries have people that hold many different views and beliefs. In Nigeria the Igbo area is located in the southern area of the country. And within this area is Umuofia, which is where the Ogidi tribe lives. These people have beliefs that rest strongly on religion and faith in god. "Things Fall Apart" by Chinua Achebe takes a look at the life of an African tribe that has been isolated from the outer more technologically advanced world where science has become a part of religion proving that certain things live sickness are not caused by evil spirits. But the African tribe has no knowledge of this and they live in a society where there traditions, beliefs and there forms of communication differ from are own. In Umuofia, traditions are an important part of their lives. They celebrate festival that has been celebrated by their people for hundreds of years. ?The feast of the New Yam was held every year before the harvest began, to honor the earth goddess and the ancestral spirits of the clan?. They beliefs were that if they prayed to the earth goddess she would give them a good season to grow their crops. They had other traditions in their tribe, like the process you must follow to marry. After coming to the ugi they would bid for the price of the woman in broomsticks because they felt that talking with cowries was insulting to the woman because it was like buying something at the market. ?. Akueke?s bride price was finally settled at twenty bags of cowries?. This tribe believed that the groom must pay to have his wife, which is how they had always done it. To be successful in Umuofia you want to, have many wives and many kids and have many barns full of yams and have titles with the clan. Okonkwo was one of the w... ...e had such a temper he would beat them. And because of his pride he would never stop until he was done beating them. Okonkwo had a very tough personality and was known through out the land as being a fierce fighter who had claimed five heads of his opponents. This culture really varies from ours in many ways because of the ways they communicate is so different from how we would ever consider doing here. The Igbo tribe has values beliefs and ideas that are strongly rooted in the gods. The way in which they communicate and interact shows a lack of respect towards woman and they are treated like slaves to men. Achebe?s novel ?Things Fall Apart? gives a good insight into the aspects a of a culture that before him had never need explored, and it gives the reader a good look at what the beliefs, values and the way the members of the community communicate and interact.