Wednesday, July 31, 2019
Ã¢â¬Å"National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Ã¢â¬ Gale Opposing Viewpoints in Context. Detroit: Gale, 2014. Opposing Viewpoints in Context. Web. 21 May 2014. Ã¢â¬Å"Alcohol Abuse and Addiction. Ã¢â¬ Alcohol and Tobacco: AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s Drugs of Choice. Detroit: Gale, 2006. Information Plus Reference Series. Opposing Viewpoints in Context. Web. 21 May 2014. Ã¢â¬Å"Drunkard Attacks Wife. Ã¢â¬ Family in Society: Essential Primary Sources. Ed. K. Lee Lerner, Brenda Wilmoth Lerner, and Adrienne Wilmoth Lerner. Detroit: Gale, 2006. 40-42. Opposing Viewpoints in Context. Web. 21 May 2014. Alcohol abuse is the habitual misuse of alcohol. As children move from adolescence to young adulthood, they encounter dramatic physical, emotional, and lifestyle changes. Developmental transitions, such as puberty and increasing independence, have been associated with alcohol use. Some, adolescence take a dark turn, especially when underage drinking is involved. Ã¢â¬Å"Everybody is doing itÃ¢â¬ so they do it too. They drink because they want to change something about their lives , however they increases the risk of academic failure, and can cause suicide and homicide. Research shows that annually about 4,700 people under age 21 die from injuries involving underage drinking. People take drugs mainly for the reasons to fit in , in school, at work, the community , etc. They also do it to escape from reality or relax . Or so they could feel good among their peers at school. Also, they sometimes are curious and ask themselves Ã¢â¬Å" How does it tastes ? Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å" How would it affect me? Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å" Is it as bad/ good as everyone tells me? Ã¢â¬ . But the real reason is peer pressure, because many teenagers feel pressured to drink around their friends. Some short-term effects of alcohol are slurred speech, drowsiness, vomiting, headaches, breathing difficulties, decreased perception and coordination , blackouts and anemia . You can get all of these short-term from simply drinking alcohol. But in the other hand ,the long-term effects are unintentional injuries such as car crashes, or drowning. Increased family problems, broken relationships. They often tend to have short temper because they have been drinking to much and donÃ¢â¬â¢t tolerate as much things as they used to. They can get alcohol poising for drinking way too much alcohol. High blood pressure , stroke, and other heart- related diseases are also long-term effects . But the ones that caught my eye the most are liver disease, cancer of the mouth and throat, nerve damage, and permanent damage to the brain. In my opinion those are the worst ones that could happen to you, if you drink too much alcohol. Alcohol is linked to 75,000 U. S deaths a year, and shortens the lives of these people by an average of 30 years. Excessive alcohol consumption is the third leading cause of preventable death in the united stated after tobacco use and poor eating and exercise habits. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , estimated that 34,833 died from cirrhosis of the liver, cancer and other diseases linked to drinking too much beer , wine and spirits. Another 40,933 died from car crashes and other mishaps caused by excessive alcohol use. Researchers considered any man who averaged more than two drinks per day or more than four drinks per occasion to be an excessive drinker. For woman it was more than one drink per day or more than three drinks per occasion. Men accounted for 72 percent of the excessive drinking deaths in 2001, and those 21 and younger made up six percent of the death toll. Light or moderate drinking can benefit a personÃ¢â¬â¢s health , but heavy drinking increases the risk of high blood pressure , heart disorders, certain cancers and liver disease. Excessive drinkers are also more likely to die in car accidents. The United States aims to cut the rate of alcohol-related driving fatalities to four deaths 1 / 2 per 100,000 people by 2010, a 32 percent drop from 1998. There are many myths of alcohol use including that it improves sexual performance, the fact is that although you may think that drinking makes you better in bed, psychologically alcohol reduces your performance. Another myth is that you can drink and still be under control. That is a lie , drinking impairs your judgment , which increases the likelihood that you will do something youÃ¢â¬â¢ll later regret such as having unprotected sex , being involved in date rape, damaging property, or being victimized by others. Furthermore, teenagers often say that drinking isnÃ¢â¬â¢t all that dangerous, that is a myth. Reality is that one in three eighteen to twenty four year olds admitted to emergency rooms for serious injuries are intoxicated. And alcohol is also associated with homicides, suicides, and drowning , as mentioned before. But, the most common myth is that beer doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have as much alcohol as hard liquor. Actually , a twelve ounce bottle of beer has the same amount as alcohol as a standard shot of eighty proof liquor (either straight or in a mixed drink ) or five ounces of wine. If you believe you or a friend may be experiencing Alcohol and/or substance problems there is help , it can be challenging but it is treatable. You can contact youÃ¢â¬â¢re counselor or you can contact psychological services and they could help you , I suggest do some research on which one is best suitable for you, and which one you feel more comfortable with. I strongly suggest that if you know a person with substance problems , let them know of the alcohol addiction treatment. Alcohol addiction treatment utilizes programs that help individuals who cannot stop drinking on their own understand what causes their alcohol addiction. Once they are knowledgeable about the cause and have the tools to break the cycle of alcohol addiction, they can begin to cope with the normal stresses of life. Alcohol addiction treatment means stepping out of your addicted life and into a supportive , comfortable, environment where you can begin life of sobriety. The drug & alcohol addiction treatment program includes expert diagnosis , detoxification, intelligent use of anti-addiction medicines, various neuro and psychotherapies , twelve Ã¢â¬â step facilitation, family involvement , health and nutrition education, and continuing life care support. POWERED BY TCPDF (WWW. TCPDF. ORG).
Analysing the male and female relationships in William Shakespeare's Othello it is clear the sexes fail to understand each other, particularly on the men's part. Whilst the women are more mature and tend to overestimate the men, the men are consumed by their vanity and reputation and cannot accept women honestly. Desdemona and Othello's lack of understanding for each other contributes to their miscommunication. Othello cannot fully trust Desdemona because his love his too idealistic and he fails to comprehend her honest and realistic approach to love: She loved me for the dangers I had passed And I loved her that she did pity them. This implies that Desdemona's affections fuel his ego and he loves her for this more than anything else. Othello's worshipping of Desdemona prohibits him from truly understanding her: O my fair warrior! Ã¢â¬ ¦If it were now to die, Ã¢â¬ËTwere to be most happy; for I fear My soul hath her content so absolute That not another comfort succeeds in unknown fate.Ã¢â¬ He does not perceive her as human and capable of fault: Ã¢â¬ ¦And when I love thee not, chaos is come again. Desdemona on the other hand does not romanticise Othello, but approaches their love realistically and maturely. She loves Othello for the person he is and does not shy from the topic of consummation: I saw Othello's visage in his mind. That I did love the Moor to live with him, Ã¢â¬ ¦ if I be left behindÃ¢â¬ ¦ The rites for which I love him are bereft meÃ¢â¬ ¦ However, as much as Othello cannot understand her honest approach to love, nor can she comprehend his connection between their love and his honour. In this respect she overestimates Othello and fails to see his capacity for jealousy: Ã¢â¬ ¦I think the sun where he was born Drew all such humours from him. Unwittingly, she wounds his pride by lying about the handkerchief and pursuing Cassio's disposition: I say it is not lostÃ¢â¬ ¦ This is a trick to put me from my suit. Pray you let Cassio be received again. The women are seen by the men as possessions and criteria for their honour. Othello cannot conceive that Desdemona is her own person and could have emotions and opinions separate to his. She shows her assertiveness when she defends Cassio, but in doing so questions Othello's judgment. Ã¢â¬Å"You'll never find a more sufficient man.Ã¢â¬ Where sexuality is concerned, he seeks complete control over her. Her faithfulness is not only needed for his ego, (Ã¢â¬Å"Cuckold me!Ã¢â¬ ) but the possibility that Desdemona has sexual desires frightens and bewilders him: Ã¢â¬ ¦O curse of marriage That we can call these creatures ours And not their appetites! Iago also reflects this possessiveness over his wife. He accuses Cassio and Othello of having leapt into his Ã¢â¬Ëseat' which implies he owns Emilia, and is astounded when she defiantly reveals his malice at the end: I will not charm my tongueÃ¢â¬ ¦ What, are you mad? I charge you get you home. Brabantio's response to his daughter's marriage holds a similar attitude. Desdemona, a Ã¢â¬Å"maiden never bold,Ã¢â¬ so still and quiet that she was scared of her own shadow, has been Ã¢â¬Å"stolenÃ¢â¬ from him. He clearly does not understand his daughter well for we soon see she is strong and assertive: That I did love the Moor to live with him. My downright violence and scornÃ¢â¬ ¦ May trumpet to the world.Ã¢â¬ Throughout the play Roderigo's behaviour is a prime example of how the men view the women as possessions. Hopelessly romanticising Desdemona, (who is not aware of his existence, let alone his love for her) he relentlessly pursues her attempting to purchase her through Iago: Therefore make moneyÃ¢â¬ ¦ I'll sell all my land. Iago speaks of Othello's marriage in terms of piracy and of Desdemona as a treasure ship, reinforcing his ideas of women as possessions: Ã¢â¬ ¦he hath tonight boarded a land-carack. Interestingly, Emilia comments on this weakness of all men. In contrast to the men's complete misconceptions about women, Emilia shows awareness and perceptiveness of the opposite sex. She does understand that men stereotype women and forget they have their own minds: Ã¢â¬ ¦Let husbands know their wives have sense like them: they see and smell, And have palates for both sweet and sour As husbands have. She recognises the jealousy of men's natures. They are not ever jealous for the cause, But jealous for they are jealous. However, although she succinctly predicts what is behind Othello's behaviour, for all her worldliness, she fails to pinpoint the blame to her own husband. This suggests that maybe she doesn't know him that well to consider him capable of such malice. Ã¢â¬Å"The Moor's abused by some most villainous knave.Ã¢â¬ Preoccupied with honour, the men categorise women into either Ã¢â¬Ëwhores' or Ã¢â¬ËMadonnas,' and fail to recognise them as individuals. Desdemona, a real Ã¢â¬Ëlady,' is continually referred to as Ã¢â¬Å"divineÃ¢â¬ and all the men greatly esteem her. Their respect is close to worship. Casio says: You men of Cyprus, let her have your knees. Hail to thee, Lady! Roderigo swears he loves her enough to Ã¢â¬Å"incontinently drownÃ¢â¬ himself. Even Iago says Ã¢â¬Å"Now I do love her tooÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ and suggests he would like to sleep with her. Bianca, on the other hand, is immediately shunned for being a prostitute and is not worthy of such high regard. The play's humanisation of her undercuts the men's one-dimensional perception: I am no strumpet, but of life as honest As you that thus abuse me. Unlike Desdemona, men cannot align their honour with such a woman as she has been Ã¢â¬Ëused' and is no longer Ã¢â¬Ëpure.' In contrast to his approach to the Ã¢â¬Ëdivine Desdemona' Cassio says of Bianca, Ã¢â¬Å"I marry her! What! A customer!Ã¢â¬ He is indifferent to her love for him, and Bianca does not realise that he will never take her seriously but always see her as a whore: Ã¢â¬ËTis such another fitchew! Marry, a perfumed one! Desdemona does not understand how men can label women Ã¢â¬Ëwhores' for she insists that such a woman does not exist, and she therefore does not understand men's preoccupation with honour: -tell me, Emilia Ã¢â¬â That there be women do abuse their husbands In such gross kind? Misogynistic attitudes perpetrated by Iago and eventually developed in Othello reveal a distrust of women, and affirm the lack of understanding between the sexes. To Iago, all women are whores. Ã¢â¬Å"You rise to play and got to bed to work.Ã¢â¬ He is rude to his own wife and unhesitatingly kills her. Ã¢â¬Å"Villainous whore!Ã¢â¬ (He stabs her.) With Iago's manipulation, Othello adopts these views and his Ã¢â¬Ëdivine' Desdemona falls straight from Madonna to whore. She has tainted his reputation and wounded his ego, (or so he believes) and he must kill her before she corrupts other men. Ã¢â¬Å"Yet she must die, else she'll betray more men.Ã¢â¬ His words to her become bitter and scathing: I took you for that cunning whore of Venice That married with Othello. The combination of their honour and misunderstanding of women makes the men easily jealous. We see this in their quickness to damn their wives as adulteresses without concrete evidence. Othello is so distrusting, the absence of a handkerchief becomes the Ã¢â¬Ëocular' proof, when ironically he has seen nothing. His jealousy makes him willing to condemn. Ã¢â¬Å"Damn her, lewd minx!Ã¢â¬ Iago also accuses his wife with unfounded suspicion of sleeping with Cassio and Othello: He's done my office. I know not if it be true, But I, for mere suspicion in that kind, Will do as if for surety.Ã¢â¬ The men and women in Othello do not understand each other. The men's preoccupation with honour and romantic ideals of love, leads them to misunderstand women viewing them as either whores or Madonnas and possessions for men. The women, in contrast, are more mature and realistic. However women such as Desdemona overestimate the men and are unable to empathise with their attitudes, or recognise their jealous natures.
Tuesday, July 30, 2019
Keller reacted instantly and instinctively. She changed. She did it on the leap this time. Rushing the process along, pushing it from behind. She wanted to be entirely a panther by the time she landed on the girl's back. But some things can't be rushed. She felt herself begin to liquefy and flowÃ¢â¬ ¦ formlessnessÃ¢â¬ ¦ pleasureÃ¢â¬ ¦ the utter freedom of not being bound to any single physical shape. Then reformation, a stretching of all her cells as they reached to become something different, to unfurl like butterfly wings into a new kind of body. Her jumpsuit misted into the fur that ran along her body, up and down from the stomach in front, straight down from the nape of her neck in back. Her ears surged and then firmed up, thin-skinned, rounded, and twitching already. From the base of her spine, her tail sprang free, its slightly clubbed end whipping eagerly. That was how she landed. She knocked the girl cleanly over, and they both went rolling on the floor. When they stopped, Keller was crouching on the girl's stomach. She didn't want to kill the girl. She needed to find some things out first. What kind of Night Person the girl was, and who'd sent her. The only problem was that now, as she knelt with her hands gripping the girl's arms, staring into dark blue eyes under soft brown- bangs, she couldn't sense anything of the Night World in the girl's life energy. Shapeshifters were the uncontested best at that. They could tell a human from a Night Person nine times out of ten. And this girl wasn't even in the Ã¢â¬Å"maybeÃ¢â¬ range. She was giving off purely human signals. Not to mention screaming. Her mouth was wide open, and so were her eyes, and so were her pupils. Her skin had gone blue-white like someone about to faint. She looked utterly bewildered and horrified, and she wasn't making a move to fight back. Keller's heart sank. But if the girl was human and harmless, why hadn't she listened when Keller had shouted at her? Ã¢â¬Å"Boss, we have to shut her up.Ã¢â¬ It was Winnie, yelling above the girl's throaty screams. As usual, Nissa didn't say a word, but she was the one who shut the music room door. By then, Keller had recovered enough to put a hand over the girl's mouth. The screaming stopped. Then she looked at the others. They were staring at her. Wide-eyed. Keller felt like a kitten with its paw in the canary cage. Here she was, sitting on this human girl's midriff, in her half-and-half form. Her ears and tail were a panther's, and she was clothed from her snug boots to her shoulders in fur. It fit her like a black velvet jumpsuit, a sleeveless one that left her arms and neck bare. The hair on her head was still a human's and swirled around her to touch the floor on every side. Her face was human, too, except for the pupils of her eyes, which were narrow ovals, reacting to every change of light and shadow. And her teeth. Her canines had become delicately pointed, giving her just the slightest hint of fangs. She blinked at Galen, not sure what she saw in his expression. He was definitely staring at her, and there was some strong emotion pulling his face taut and making that white line around his mouth. Horror? Disgust? He was a shapeshifter himself-or he would be if he could ever make up his mind. He'd seen her in panther form. Why should he be shocked at this? The answer flashed back at Keller from some deep part of her brain. Only because I'm a monster this way. Panthers are part of nature and can't be blamed for what they do. I'm a savage thing that doesn't manage to be either an animal or a person. And I'm dangerous in this form. Neither half of me is really in control. Someone who's never changed could never understand that. Galen took a step toward her. His jaw was tense, but his gold-green eyes were fixed on hers, and his hand was slightly lifted. Keller wondered if it was the gesture of a hostage negotiator. He opened his mouth to say something. And Iliana came to life, jumping up and running past him and shrieking at Keller all at once. Ã¢â¬Å"What are you doing? That's Jaime! What are you doing to her?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"You know her?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"That's Jaime Ashton-Hughes! She's Brett's sister! And she's one of my best friends! And you attacked her! Are you all right?Ã¢â¬ It was all shrieked at approximately the same decibel level, but on the last sentence, Iliana looked down at Jaime. Keller moved her palm from Jaime's mouth. As it turned out, though, that didn't seem to be necessary. Jaime raised her free hand and began to make swift, fluid gestures at Iliana with it. Keller stared, and then her insides plummeted. She let go of the girl's other arm, and the gestures immediately became two-handed. Oh. OhÃ¢â¬ ¦ darn. Keller could feel her ears flatten backward. She looked unhappily at Iliana. Ã¢â¬Å"Sign language?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"She's got a hearing impairment!Ã¢â¬ Iliana glared at Keller, all the while making gestures back at Jaime. Her motions were awkward and stilted compared to Jaime's, but she clearly had some idea what she was doing. Ã¢â¬Å"I didn't realize.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"What difference does it make how well she can hear?Ã¢â¬ Diana yelled. Ã¢â¬Å"She's my friend! She's president of the senior class! She's chair for the Christmas Benefit bazaar! What did she do to you, ask you to buy a teddy bear?Ã¢â¬ Keller sighed. Her tail was tucked up close to her body, almost between her legs, and her ears were flatter than ever. She climbed off Jaime, who immediately scooted backward and away from her, still talking rapidly with her hands to Diana. Ã¢â¬Å"The difference,Ã¢â¬ Keller said, Ã¢â¬Å"is that she didn't stop when I told her to. I yelled at her, butÃ¢â¬ ¦ I didn't realize. Look, just tell her I'm sorry, will you?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬ËYou tell her! Don't talk about her as if she isn't here. Jaime can lip-read just fine if you bother to face her.Ã¢â¬ Diana turned to Jaime again. Ã¢â¬Å"I'm sorry. Please don't be mad. This is terrible-and I don't know how to explain. Can you breathe now?Ã¢â¬ Jaime nodded slowly. Her dark blue eyes slid to Keller, then back to Diana. She spoke in a hushed voice. Although it was flat in tone and some of the sounds were indistinct, it was actually rather pleasant. And the words were perfectly understandable. Ã¢â¬Å"WhatÃ¢â¬ ¦ is it?Ã¢â¬ she asked Diana. Meaning Keller. But then, before Diana could answer, Jaime caught herself. She bit her lip, looked at the floor for a moment, then braced herself and looked at Keller again. She was frightened, her body was shrinking, but this time her eyes met Keller's directly. Ã¢â¬Å"WhatÃ¢â¬ ¦ are you?Ã¢â¬ Keller opened her mouth and shut it again. A hand closed on her shoulder. It was warm, and it exerted brief pressure for an instant. Then it pulled away, maybe as if revolted because it was resting on fur. Ã¢â¬Å"She's a person,Ã¢â¬ Galen said, kneeling down beside Jaime. Ã¢â¬Å"She may look a little different right now, but she's as much of a person as you are. And you have to believe that she didn't mean to hurt you. She made a mistake. She thought you were an enemy, and she reacted.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"An enemy?Ã¢â¬ There was something about Galen. Jaime had relaxed almost as soon as he got down on her level. Now she was talking to him freely, her hands flying gracefully as she spoke aloud, emphasizing her words. Her face was pretty when it wasn't blue with suffocation, Keller noticed. Ã¢â¬Å"What are you talking about? What kind of enemy? Who are you people? I haven't seen you around school before.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"She thought-well, she thought you were going to hurt Diana. There are some people who are trying to do that.Ã¢â¬ Jaime's face changed. Ã¢â¬Å"Hurt Diana? Who? They'd better not even try!Ã¢â¬ Winnie had been twitching throughout this. Now she muttered, Ã¢â¬Å"BossÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"It doesn't matter,Ã¢â¬ Keller said quietly. Ã¢â¬Å"Nissa's going to have to blank her memory anyway.Ã¢â¬ It was too bad, in a way, because this girl's reaction to the Night World was one of the most sensible Keller had ever seen. But it couldn't be helped. Keller didn't look at Diana as she spoke; she knew there was going to be an argument. But before it started, she had one final thing to say. Ã¢â¬Å"Jaime?Ã¢â¬ She moved and got instant attention. Ã¢â¬Å"I'm sorry. Really. I'm sorry I frightened you. And I'm really sorry if I hurt you.Ã¢â¬ She stood up, not waiting to see if she was forgiven. What difference did it make? What was done was already done, and what was about to happen was inevitable. She didn't expect to be forgiven, and she didn't care. That was what she told herself, anyway. Diana did argue. Keller tried not to let Jaime see much of it, because that would only make her more scared and miserable, and the end really was inescapable. Leaving her memory intact would be dangerous not only for Iliana but for Jaime herself. Ã¢â¬Å"It's death for a human to find out about the Night World,Ã¢â¬ Keller said flatly. Ã¢â¬Å"And it's worse than death if the dragon and his friends think she's got any information about the Wild Power. You don't want to know what they'll do to try and get it out of her, Iliana. I promise you don't.Ã¢â¬ And, finally, Iliana gave in, as Keller had known she would have to from the beginning. Nissa moved up behind Jaime like a whisper and a shadow and touched her on the side of her neck. Although witches were the experts at brainwashing, at inserting new ideas and convictions, vampires were the best at wiping the slate clean. They didn't use spells. It was something they were born with, the power to put their victim into a trance and smooth away hours or even days of memoiy. Jaime looked into Nissa's silvery-brown eyes for maybe seventy seconds, and then her own blue eyes shut, and her body went limp. Galen caught her as she feU. Ã¢â¬Å"She'll wake up in a few minutes. It's probably best if we leave her here and get out,Ã¢â¬ Nissa said. Ã¢â¬Å"Lunch is over, anyway,Ã¢â¬ Keller said. In the quiet minutes while Jaime was being hypnotized, Keller had finally managed to convince her body that there was no danger. It was only then that she could relax enough to change back. Her ears collapsed, her tail retracted. Her fur misted into jumpsuit and skin. She blinked twice, noticing the difference in brightness as her pupils changed, and the tips of her fangs melted into ordinary teeth. She stood up, shifting her shoulders to get used to the human body again. They were all subdued as they escorted Iliana back to classes. The quietest of all was Keller. She had overreacted, let her animal senses throw her into a panic. It wasn't the first time in her life. The first time in her life had been when she was about threeÃ¢â¬ ¦ but better not to think about that. Anyway, it wasn't even the first time in her career as an agent for Circle Daybreak. An agent had to be ready for anything at any moment. Had to have radar running, in front, in back, and on all sides, all the time, and be prepared to react instinctively at the slightest stimulus. If that sometimes caused mistakes-well, it also saved lives. And she wasn't sorry. If she had to do it over, she'd do it again. Better one nice brown-haired girl scared than Iliana hurt. Better, Keller thought with bleak defiance, one nice brown-haired girl killed than Iliana in the hands of the enemy. Iliana represented the future of the entire daylight world. ButÃ¢â¬ ¦ Maybe she was getting too old for this kind of job. Or maybe too jumpy. Iliana sat moodily during afternoon classes, like a fairy who'd lost her flower. Keller noticed Winnie and Nissa being extra vigilant-just in case their boss got preoccupied. She flashed them a sarcastic look. Ã¢â¬Å"You waiting for me to slack off?Ã¢â¬ She poked Nissa in the ribs. Ã¢â¬Å"Don't hold your breath.Ã¢â¬ They smiled, knowing they'd been thanked. And GalenÃ¢â¬ ¦ Keller didn't want to think about Galen. He sat quietly but intently through each class, and she could tell his senses were expanded. He didn't try to speak to her, didn't even look at her. But Keller noticed that every so often he rubbed his palm against his jeans. And she remembered the way his hand had pulled back from her shoulder. As if he'd touched something hot. Or something repulsiveÃ¢â¬ ¦ Keller gritted her teeth and stared at various blackboards with dry and burning eyes. When the last bell finally rang, she made the whole group wait in the chemistry classroom while the school emptied out. Iliana watched and silently steamed as her friends all left without her. Even the teacher packed up and disappeared. Ã¢â¬Å"Can we go now?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"No.Ã¢â¬ Keller stood at the second-story window, looking down. All right, so I'm a tyrant, she thought. A nasty, unsympathetic, whip-wielding dictator who jumps on innocent girls and won't let people out of school. I like being that way. Iliana wouldn't argue. She stood rigidly a few feet away, looking out the window herself but refusing to acknowledge Keller's presence. Finally, Keller said, Ã¢â¬Å"All right. Nissa, get the car.Ã¢â¬ Galen said, Ã¢â¬Å"I'll do it.Ã¢â¬ The answer to that, of course, was, Ã¢â¬Å"No way.Ã¢â¬ But Galen was going on. Ã¢â¬Å"It's something useful I can do. I've been standing around all day, wishing I was trained at something. At least driving I can handle. And if anybody comes after me, I can run fast.Ã¢â¬ The answer to that was still no. But Keller couldn't bring herself to say it, because she couldn't bring herself to face him for a long debate. She was afraid of what she might see in the depths of those gold-green eyes. It would be funny if she'd managed to turn the prince of the shapeshifters off from shapeshifting altogether. Wouldn't it? Ã¢â¬Å"Go on,Ã¢â¬ she said to Galen, still looking down onto the circular driveway in front of the school. After he had gone, she said to Nissa, Ã¢â¬Å"Follow him.Ã¢â¬ That was how everyone happened to be where they were in the next few minutes. Keller and Iliana were at the window, staring out at a cool gray sky. Winnie was at the door to the chemistry room, watching the hallway. Galen was a floor beneath them somewhere inside the school, and Nissa was a discreet distance behind him. And standing beside the circular driveway, obviously waiting for a ride, was a girl with familiar brown hair. She was reading a book that didn't look like a textbook. Jaime. It all happened very fast, but there were still distinct stages of warning. Keller was aware of them all. The first thing she noticed was a blue-green car that cruised down the street in front of the high school. It was going slowly, and she narrowed her eyes, trying to catch a glimpse of the driver. She couldn't The car passed on. I should make her get away from the window, Keller thought. This wasn't as obvious a conclusion as it seemed. The Night People weren't in the habit of using sharpshooters to pick off their targets. But it was still probably a good idea. Keller was tiredly opening her mouth to say it when something caught her attention. The blue-green car was back. It was at the exit of the circular driveway, stopped but facing the wrong way, as if it were about to enter. As Keller watched, it revved its engine. Keller felt her hairs prickle. But it didn't make any sense. Why on earth would Night People want to park there and draw attention to themselves? It had to be some human kids acting up. Hiana was frowning. She had stopped tracing patterns in the dust on the windowsill. Ã¢â¬Å"Who's that? I don't know that car.Ã¢â¬ Alarms. But stillÃ¢â¬ ¦ The car roared again and started moving. Coming the wrong way along the driveway. And Jaime, right below them, didn't look up. Diana realized at the same time Keller did. Ã¢â¬Å"Jaime!Ã¢â¬ She screamed it and pounded the window with one small fist. It didn't do the slightest good, of course. Beside her, Keller stood frozen and furious. The car was picking up speed, heading straight for Jaime. There was nothing to do. Nothing. Keller could never get down there fast enough. It was all going to be over in a second. But it was horrible. That giant metal thing, tons of steel, was going to hit about a hundred and ten pounds of human flesh. Ã¢â¬Å"Jaime!Ã¢â¬ It was a scream torn from Diana. Below, Jaime finally looked up. But it was too late.
Monday, July 29, 2019
Cultural Awareness, Understanding, and Acceptance - Research Paper Example This will help educators and students to detect bias in books, in the media and other reading materials. It is high time publishers and writers became objective and try not to undermine the beliefs of others. Most educative materials are bias and do not have a global perspective. It is, therefore, time there is a change to the approach of doing things. The society is not equal since some are advantage unlike some. Educational opportunities are not available for all. Equity pedagogy aims at providing equal opportunities to all in the society. Transforming of the schools will help in promoting national unity and harmony. Multicultural competency helps an individual to improve his or her way of perceiving, believing, evaluating and problem solving. The fact is people are self-centered and do not care about others. Cross cultural interaction and exchange is slowly making people understand the significance of cohesion. There is inequality in the society because of stereotypes and tendenci es of prejudice. There are many myths about other peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s culture and this has a negative effect on how communities relate. Some communities make others feel inferior causing hatred and animosity. Lack of cultural interaction is the main cause to the problem. It is hence vital for stakeholders to embrace multicultural education system since it will provide solid solutions that are long term. Answers to part B and C Culture refers t the knowledge, values, experience, attitudes, religion, concepts of the universe and spatial relationships developed by a group of individuals through both group and individual striving. Culture also entails the patterns of behavior developed and transmitted from one generation to another. Various cultural groups think act and feel differently depending on their beliefs. There are no scientific standards to determine which group is superior or inferior (Knight 2004). Multi cultural education refers to inter discipline and cross-curricular educatio n that prepares students to work and live in a diverse environment. Respect and appreciation of cross-culture is increasing gaining momentum throughout the world. It is encouraging and impressive that students are learning cultures outside those of their own. This helps them interact well with people of different cultures. Multicultural education provides an opportunity for learning institutions to create cultural awareness among students though the various studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ organization. This equips students with the skills they need to interact with other people having different cultures and beliefs. As globalization is taking shape and businesses expanding, cross-cultural interaction is on the rise. As more people from different cultures interact, they exchange the cultures and learn to compromise with what other people think and feel (Johanna, 2000). Multicultural education is principal in addressing cultural differences and cultural bias because it encourages respect and appreci ations of other peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s beliefs. In an educational setting, students become aware on the cultures of other people, reasons as to why they behave the way they do and why it is crucial to respect other people believes (Knight, 2004).Multicultural educa
Sunday, July 28, 2019
The ideas of John Keynes(1936) are extremely relevant to the current macroeconomic situation in the UK(situation of recent 5 years). Discuss - Essay Example Economics is the science of wealth creation and it involves formulation of theories that are debated and tested leading to some being accepted, rejected or modified. They all involve the question of what to produce using the scarce resources, how to ensure stable prices with full employment and how to ensure and provide a raising living standard for the people today and tomorrow.( Sloman 2010) John Keynes was (1883-1946) was a British economist whose ideas greatly impacted on the modern day macro economics with an effect on the British social liberalals. In 1936 he broke from the classical theory of economics with the publication of the General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money that advocated for an interventionist policies by the government. The main tool by which the government will intervene included the fiscal and monetary policy to mitigate against the adverse effects of capitalism that is recession, depression and business cycles. His theories are what are known as the Keynesian theory of economics. For the classical view held that in a recession that wages and salaries would decline to restore full employment, but Keynes held that the opposite was true. Falling prices and wages depresses peoples incomes thus preventing a revival of spending. Keynes insisted that a direct government spending was necessary to increase the spending. In his theory one persons sp ending goes towards another earnings thus when he/she is spending her money she/he is infect supporting anotherÃ¢â¬â¢s earning and the circle continues and this is what helps and support the normal function of an economy. When a depression hits, people hoard money and this action deprives the economy of money in circulation making it to be at a stand still. These Ã¢â¬ËcrunchÃ¢â¬â¢ can be best corrected by the government intervention so as
Saturday, July 27, 2019
Radical Islam - Research Paper Example The application of Sharia law c. The termination of non-Muslim influence in the Muslim world d. The development of Muslim identity in politics e. The fundamentals of radical Islam have a lot of bearing on the application of the doctrine IV. Manifestations a. Political violence or terrorism i. September 11 (2001) ii. Attacks on US bases in East Africa (1998) b. Mass revolutions i. Iran revolution (1979) ii. Arab spring (2011) c. Political aggression i. Anti-US foreign policy ii. Refusal to recognize the statehood of Israel d. Isolation from the global order i. Iran (nuclear program) ii. Iraq (biological weapons) V. Implications a. Terrorism b. Political aggression c. Isolation from the global order VI. Future a. The future of radical Islam is unpredictable b. It is yet to be seen whether Muslim countries will embrace radical Islam in future c. Though Muslim countries are likely to be moderate in the future VII. Conclusion a. Radical Islam is a political ideology based on the basics of Islam; Quran and the Sunna b. It manifests in various forms like terrorism and revolutions c. It originated from the need to apply Islamic principles in politics d. It calls for the elimination of western control over Muslim region e. Countries that embrace the ideology risk isolation from the global order f. In future Muslim countries will not embrace the ideology g. Radical Islam is a recipe for political isolation VIII. ... Several other terms have been used to imply the same thing and they include Islamism, extremism and Islamic fundamentalism. Radical Islam has both positive and negative connotations in the sense that at a positive level it is perceived as a mechanism towards unity in the Muslim world as well as a guarantor of purity and morality in the political sphere. However, radical Islam is a dangerous concept that segregates the Muslim world from the mainstream on the grounds of religious doctrine. As a result, many opponents of the concept often describe it as a misapplication of extreme doctrines of Islam on political sphere which could have catastrophic results. Radical Islam has been in existence for a lengthy period of time and it has a long history of application. In essence, radical Islam originates from the misinterpretation and misplaced application of Islamic religious doctrine on political and social order. There are several implications of radical Islam most of which include isolati on, violence and terrorism. Moreover, radical Islam manifests in numerous ways that range from destructive tendencies like acts of terror and democratic revolutions like the Arab spring. The future of radical Islam is quite unpredictable owing to the fact that it is not easily known whether Muslim countries will embrace the doctrine in future. Origin of Radical Islam As a term radical Islam was coined by scholars and thinkers who have studied foreign policy, international relations and the particulars of Muslim countries. Originally, the term was meant to imply ideologies that seek to emphasize that Islam ought to direct the personal, political as well as
Friday, July 26, 2019
Homework9 - Essay Example Separation of power identifies three power centers that are necessary for offering checks and balance on each other. The branches are the Congress, the executive, and the Judiciary. The President heads the executive whose roles, besides primary roles, are to offer checks and balances on the judiciary and the Congress. The Congress is the law making body in the nation and the president has the duty to assent to made laws before they can become effective and to veto laws that may be repugnant to natural justice and this ensures that only rational laws that the Congress enact govern the people. The president also plays an important role in appointment of judges through nominating them and this ensures good conduct in the judiciary. The Judiciary is also necessary because of its checks on both the executive and the Congress. Like the executive, it can declare legislation unconstitutional and therefore render it invalid and this ensures that the Congress does not just make arbitrary laws. The Judiciary can also declare actions and decision of the executive unconstitutional to minimize arbitrary authority. The congress is also necessary because of its regulatory powers over the executive such as disapproving a bill that the president prefers, passing a law contrary to the presidentÃ¢â¬â¢s veto, impeaching the president, and refusing to approve the presidentÃ¢â¬â¢s recommendations that are subject to the CongressÃ¢â¬â¢ approval. In addition, the congress is necessary for its checks over the courts such as impeachment of judges for misconduct, refusing to approve appointment of a judge, and varying jurisdiction of a judge. Federalism is also necessary for checks and balances by the federal and state governments on each other (Wilson, Dilulio and Bose 31). The nation has an inefficient political system because of the mode of appointment to the political offices.
Shifts In Maritime Transportation Industry - Case Study Example The present slow down of the industry in the developed world gives rise to this pessimism however, the forecast for the developing world produces a completely contrasting picture. Maritime transportation is intricately linked by the means of transportation i.e by the shipping industry. Thus the health of the shipping industry gives a fair picture of the state of the transportation industry. After the end of the Second World War, The United States was the leading country in maritime transportation. The remarkable Marshall Plan saw the rebuilding of a shattered Europe in which seaborne commerce played an important role. Transportation of oil as also other goods increased manifolds. Closure of the Suez Canal in 1956 caused a short term downswing, but also helped add impetus to the shipping industry as the oil now had to come around the Cape of Good Hope thus increasing the capacity and capability of the maritime transportation sector. Between 1957 and 1973, the West's domination of the maritime transportation industry was challenged by Japan who became the industry leader. In that period the transportation industry was very much a 'sunset industry' as far as the Europeans and the Americans were concerned but a 'sunshine industry' for Japan. The OPEC oil embargo of 1973, caused a sudden glut of oil tankers which had no cargo to carry. Consequently, the maritime transportation industry suffered badly. The Japanese shipbuilding industries suffered heavily and in the intervening vacuum, the South Koreans stepped in to claim their stake in the global maritime transportation pie. China and Singapore too joined the race. The maritime transportation industry today is characterized by some important factors shaping the world.
Thursday, July 25, 2019
Professionalism in Nursing - Coursework Example From this report it is clear thatÃ clothing and conduct for students and practicing nurses were dictated strongly by dress codes and strict disciplinary protocols developed by hospital administrators in charge of nurses. Here, personality traits may have had negligible chance to emerge from the starch white uniforms and pulled back hair donned in a white cap. On the other hand, times have changed and most nursing students today are thrilled with the independence and career opportunities that have evolved for them at numerous levels, as well as those in advanced practice nursing. As the professional nursing arena expands and new roles develop, the professional nurse is expected to demonstrate respect for the faculty by continuing to don the traditional dress.Ã This study declares thatÃ there should be awareness to nurses that appearance makes a lasting impression on patients, contemporaries, and the general public. Although dress and appearance alone cannot guarantee success in a nursing job, they can at the same time assure letdown.Ã This is because patients do have their own expectations of a professional, including their personal preferences and generational influences. Since health care is a form of business, successful professionals must therefore attract a steady, growing patient population in order to survive. The professional nurse should therefore demonstrate respect for patients by developing relationships with them and projecting a positive public image that will help build a deep founded practice.... But these have become loosely adhered to. As a result, one finds nurses simply abandoning their traditional trade mark white uniform and substituting it with scrub suits and colorful jackets. Since nursing is becoming a professional practice, I will demonstrate respect to my peers by becoming more aware of how my appearance, behavior, and communication can influence the first impressions of others about me. I will therefore try to follow the dress code and the behavior expected of me as a professional nurse to the letter. Faculty In the past, clothing and conduct for students and practicing nurses were dictated strongly by dress codes and strict disciplinary protocols developed by hospital administrators in charge of nurses (Jacob, 1999). Here, personality traits may have had negligible chance to emerge from the starch white uniforms and pulled back hair donned in a white cap. On the other hand, times have changed and most nursing students today are thrilled with the independence and career opportunities that have evolved for them at numerous levels, as well as those in advanced practice nursing. As the professional nursing arena expands and new roles develop, the professional nurse is expected to demonstrate respect for the faculty by continuing to don the traditional dress. This is essentially because the professional dress and appearance continue to be very important facets of the nursing image especially within the faculty (Jacob, 1999). Patients As it has already been established, there should be awareness to nurses that appearance makes a lasting impression on patients, contemporaries, and the general public. Although dress and appearance alone cannot guarantee success in a nursing job, they can at the same time assure letdown
Wednesday, July 24, 2019
Hybridity and Neo-colonialism - Essay Example A lot of symbolism and thematic illustrations has been applied by the author in demonstrating the fact that the white culture is superior to the blacks' culture in this play (Goellner and Jacqueline, 32). The author seeks to use these demonstrations to make a case for his claim of white preference over black culture and ideologies. In the contemporary society today, this claim of white superiority over black people's ideals can be likened to the concept of neo-colonialism. The reason behind this argument is that hybridity comes in after an influence of a white culture on a black person. This is exactly how neo-colonialism follows colonization of the third world countries. The dance in the play is symbolically used by the author to show preference of the white culture over black culture. Willie, a black man, has to struggle hard to learn the dance (from white culture) in order to participate in the competition. In fact at some point he talks so passionately about the dance that catche s the attention of the young Hall (Goellner and Jacqueline, 27). This shows that despite the whites enforcing apartheid rule in South Africa, Willie still believes the ideals of the whites is still superb. Willie talks so passionately about the "art" of dance and the setting in which it will take place that gets the uninterested Hally to buy in to the idea. Despite being an African, Willy still has high regard for white culture which points out the fact that white ideologies can still influence his position on many issues.
Tuesday, July 23, 2019
Any topic that includes microeconomics - Term Paper Example Tariffs have adverse effects on an economy. However, governments continue imposing them on investors who import commodities from foreign nations (Gregory 2000 p 16). This essay is a critique of the economic implications of tariffs. It highlights the major reasons why governments impose tariffs on imported goods, which include; protection of the emerging as well as aging and incompetent local firms from unhealthy foreign competition, to enhance sustainability of local companies through prevention of dumping effect from foreign companies which may offer their products locally at an extremely low price that leads to losses by domestic firms (Mansfield and Yohe 23). The essay also presents the negative views of tariffs in regard to promoting trade and economic growth, which have been supported by various organizations such as the WTO and Word Bank. The double impact of tariffs on the economy imposing the tariffs as well the economy on which the tariffs have been imposed is highlighted. The impact of tariffs on the prices of locally manufactured goods, changes in demand for the goods and employment in the economy imposing the tariffs has been illustrated using the United States as an example of an economy imposing tariffs on foreign products from china (Swire 2009), and the Republic of Korea which illustrates an economy that does not impose taxes on foreign products in the domestic market. The essay also indicates the invisibility of the negative impacts of tariffs on the economy compared to the projected advantages. It also indicates the areas that need further research regarding tariff imposition, whereby researchers can search for information from published sources. One of the major reasons why governments impose tariffs on imports is to enhance the development of the emerging domestic industries to attain a size that able to cope with foreign competition. In other words it is one of the
Monday, July 22, 2019
The Liberal reforms of 1906-1914 Essay To what extent could the Liberal reforms of 1906-1914 be described as a radical attempt to alleviate poverty? This essay will explore the Liberal reforms introduced between 1906-1914 and assess the governments efficacy in tackling poverty. In the early 20th century poverty was becoming an increasingly important issue and for a variety of reasons. Poverty had risen up the political agenda not least because of the advent of the Labour Party and their programme for social reform. At one end of the spectrum it is argued that the Liberal Government were crusaders for social reform, fighting oppression and poverty to emancipate the working classes. At the other end, the Liberals were seen as a Government with no plan or coherent strategy to deal with these issues and were not even united; with legislation being introduced piece meal as a response to individual crisis. At the turn of the century large numbers of men, women and children had to endure deplorable living and working conditions. The estimated unemployment rate for 15 to 64 year olds in 1902 was 69%1, although the unemployment rate as measured by those claiming unemployment related benefit was as low as 5%. However this raises questions about the accuracy of measuring and reporting conditions and begins to signify the potential numbers living on the poverty line. In 1900 trade union membership represented only 11% of those in employment and the impact of the Taff Vale2 judgement meant even the Trade Unions were powerless to improve the poor working conditions. Further, the school leaving age in 1900 was 12 and according to the 1901 census 10% (140,000) 10 14 year old boys were already working. The benefits paid by the state were in any event below subsistence level and these issues were compounded by poor housing and over crowding, poor diet and health. Together with lack of health care meant large numbers were living in extreme poverty. These conditions had prevailed throughout the 19 Century and there had been no concerted effort to tackle the issue. However, in the eight years before the First World War, the Liberal Government first under Henry Campbell-Bannerman and then Herbert Asquith embarked upon a sweeping programme of social and economic reform. New Liberalism advocated social reform, financed by higher taxation on the wealthy. Surveys concerning the poor by individuals such as Charles Booth and Seebohm Rowntree in York3 had revealed the extent of poverty and brought the problem to public attention. This could explain the burst of activity by the Liberal Government. In their studies they distinguished between families suffering from primary and secondary poverty. Such studies provided a wealth of statistical data on wages, hours of work, nutritional needs, food consumed, health and housing. Booth and Rowntree published a book4 illustrating the failings of the capitalist system and argued that new measures were needed to overcome the problems of unemployment, old age and ill health. Their findings highlight the reasons for Liberal reforms being made. Historians such as S. Reed Brett and Murray believe that the Liberal reforms of 1906 onwards were significant. They claim that by moving towards the State intervening in peoples lives and changing attitudes they laid the foundations of the welfare state today. One view is that Lloyd Georges reforms were the first real step to changing societys attitude to helping the vulnerable and poor. They convinced people that the governments role should be to help the poor and needy. This made it possible for later governments to bring in welfare reforms such as the National Health Service (in 1948). Murray illustrates this view in his work: The social reforms of the pre-war Liberal government had no opportunity to make a major dent in the extent of poverty before the Great War, but there is some evidence to suggest that they began to make a difference in the long term. (Murray, 1999) The Liberal reforms can also be considered in very different terms. Some contempories believed that the Liberals were only interested in Britains efficiency as a country. It can be argued that the Liberal government brought in their welfare reforms because they were afraid that a sick and badly educated workforce would leave Britain lagging behind other countries like Germany. If Britain was to compete and maintain its position as a world power, then it had to be run efficiently. This theory supported the belief that healthy, well-educated workforce was essential. (Murphy, 2000) Commentators are also of the view that political pressures from the left induced fear in the Liberal Administration, which ultimately forced or encouraged the government to embark on social reform. These conflicting interpretations will be reviewed in more detail when considering the effectiveness of the reforms The extreme poverty identified in the research conducted by Booth and Rowntree and the poor health levels of those conscripted for the Boer War5, proved to be a catalyst for the actions taken to improve health, education and the general welfare of the public. It is clear that many historians and commentators have conflicting views concerning the Liberal Administration and question the motives for reform. However, there is no doubt that the Liberals introduced a series of important measures. The social reforms to benefit the lowest classes were centred on three areas, children, elderly and poverty resulting from unemployment and sickness. The Liberal Administration was aware of how controversial such reforms were and started with attempts to improve conditions for working class children. Such children were the most vulnerable section of society, but also could not be held to blame for their predicament. Even so there was still opposition as some believed that parents were responsible for children and that government intervention would only undermine individual freedom and responsibility. Despite such beliefs there was a common consensus that the poverty experienced by the poorest working class children was a national disgrace and a range of measures were introduced. In 1906 the government introduced the Education (School Meals) Act, which resulted from the work of the Labour MP William Beverage. This gave local councils the power to provide free school meals for the poorest families. In many ways this was a great success. On the other hand, the Act allowed local authorities to provide meals, but it did not make it a mandatory requirement. In 1907 the Liberals, established compulsory medical inspections. This was owed to civil servant Sir Robert Morant. The checks were free, but in some areas they were carried out more thoroughly than others. Further, despite the introduction of the inspections, they were not a solution for all as the treatment was not free. Therefore the success of such inspections is questionable. This is illustrated by Murray; Both measures gradually had a major impact despite their opponents. Although the 1906 Act was at first permissive (Local Education Authorities were not compelled to supply school meals), by 1914 over 14 million meals per annum were being provide for 158,000 children. In a similar way, the 1907 Act did not compel local authorities to set up clinics, but by 1914 most were proving some medical treatment for children. (Murray, 1999) Later, in 1908 the government introduced the Children and Young Persons Act, due to the influence of pressure groups such as the NSPCC6. Children became protected persons, which meant that parents who ill-treated or neglected their children could now be prosecuted. The Act banned the sale of alcohol and tobacco to children and prohibited them from working in dangerous trades like scrap metal. Also, children who broke the law were now dealt with in specialist juvenile courts and prisons. These were clearly important measures to improve the welfare of children and help tackle child poverty. It can be said that these reforms were the Liberals principal achievement during their first tenure in office. The Liberals were fully aware that for many people the main cause of poverty was old age. In response to this they introduced Old Age Pensions in 1908. It was highly controversial because of the expected cost. It was also debatable because some people thought that old people were in poverty because they had wasted their money throughout their lives. Overall, Old Age Pensions were very well received and had support from most of the public. To qualify, people had to be over the age of 70. They also had to earn less than Ã ¯Ã ¿Ã ½31 per year and have lived in Britain for 20 years. The number of old people who depended on charity or the Poor Law dropped dramatically as a result of this reform. Pugh clarifies this: The scheme was implemented in ways calculated to reassure the beneficiaries, that it promoted the independence of the elderly, that it reached more people than is usually thought, and that it helped to modify popular attitudes towards the state. (Martin Pugh 2000) However, the pension act was still a very controversial measure mainly due to the sectors of society excluded by the Act and the retention of the concept deserving and undeserving individuals. With regard to the unemployed Booth and Rowntrees investigations revealed that inadequate wages were another major cause of poverty and minimum wage legislation was identified as a radical step. The Liberals felt they had no option other than to address the problem and as a result passed the 1909 Trade Boards Act and the 1912 Mines Act. Although they were limited in scope and effect, the measures marked a shift away from the 19th century laissez faire attitude that the government should not intervene in the setting of wages. Some of the most far-reaching reforms introduced by the Liberals concerned working people. Throughout the early 1900s there were a range of different measures undertaken by local authorities to help the sick and unemployed. The government supported many. However, by 1911 the Liberals were convinced that some kind of government-controlled national system was needed. As a result they created National Insurance in 1911. The National Insurance Act was in two parts. The 1st part dealt with unemployment, the second with health. Workers earning under Ã ¯Ã ¿Ã ½160 per year had to join the scheme. They paid 4d per week from their own wages into an insurance scheme. The employer added a further 2d and the government added 3d on top of that. In return for their contributions workers got sick pay of 10 shillings a week for 6 months and unemployment pay of 7 shillings a week for up to 15 weeks. As with the other Liberal measures, when the scheme was introduced there was a lot of opposition suggesting its radical nature. Many workers resented the money being taken from their wages and many employers resented the amount of money it cost them. This was a regressive measure. The policy could have been more radical and progressive by linking the sums payable in National Insurance to wages as opposed to one amount for all workers. However, this was arguably the most important of all welfare reforms. By 1913, 13 million workers were insured in the scheme and a very important safety net had been established. It marked a break with the past in establishing the principle that providing help for the unemployed was a national not a local responsibility. It was clear that the principle of individual liberty was now being challenged by a stronger emphasis on collective welfare rights. (www.NationalArchives.gov.uk) Pearce and Stewart highlight this: Although the Liberal government failed to make a popular impact at the time, a number of measures had particular significance because they showed that the government were prepared to intervene far more than had been the case in the past. This exemplifies a radical attempt to improve poverty: The effect of these social reforms meant a significant increase in government intervention. The state had now assumed an unprecedented degree of responsibility for individuals in the lower class of society. (Mike Byrne, 2005) The main criticisms of the Liberals reforms were the attitude towards welfare was generally too cautious. It can be argued that the Liberals reforms were little more than a response to economic and political circumstances. There were large elements of compromise and Victorian moral attitudes were still featuring in the reforms. Whilst it is accepted that, as a whole, the welfare package introduced by the Liberals helped to some extent alleviate poverty, it is also clear that many people continued to slip through the net and that the Liberals measures were very limited in scope and were capable of further extensions. For example the 1909 pensions excluded old people under the age of 70 and did not cover criminals, people continually failing to find work and drunkards. Workers outside the industries covered in the Labour Exchange Act and Miners Minimum Wage Act did not qualify to receive a minimum wage. Only c.13 million out of a total population of c.45 million were included in the National Insurance Scheme. The National Insurance 1911 act pension coverage was not universal and was aimed mainly at lower paid and manual workers. It did not provide support for dependants. (www.National Statistics.gov.uk) Further more Free medical care was available to only a wage earner, not the wife or children. To tackle poverty more effectively the reforms could have been universal without deliberately excluding thousands of people. This is expounded by Watts: Changes were often modest in scope and there was a number of areas which remained unreformed. (Watts, 1995) Most of the Liberal reforms depended upon local government and local services to deliver them. While this had the effect of removing the stigma of the Poor Law, it also depended upon the priorities of the local authorities. The provision of school medical services, for example, was made possible by central government but its implementation was patchy as it relied on local authorities, many having differing priorities. In effect this meant there was no coherent strategy or mechanism to implement the much-needed reform, which accordingly failed to achieve the desired outcome. The range of reforms introduced by the Liberals was impressive, but it was not the result of a preconceived programme. Historians often see the reforms as individual solutions to particular social problems, not as a wider radical movement. If they were to have come to power, with a formal programme for poverty relief the reforms may have been more radical and affected a wider section of society. The Government as a whole did not seem to be very committed to welfare reforms, apart from Lloyd George and Churchill. It is argued that the reforms were Lloyd George and Churchills response to what they saw as the challenge from the left. By stealing Labours thunder, they hoped to capture more working class votes. Watts illustrates this: Lloyd George and Churchill revealed a certain skill in adapting Liberalism to the challenge of the condition of the people question. In so doing, they retained some middle-class support and made a bid for the loyalty of the working classes. (Watts, 1995) By ensuring that reforms were as moderate as possible, they hoped to retain middle-class support. In other words, if the reforms are seen in terms of party political advantage, far from being radical, the reforms can be described as a conservative response to the radical threat from the left. When comparing the Liberal actions in light of later developments the reforms were not wholly radical and a great deal of key legislation was left undone. The legislation was hardly revolutionary. The state pension was free but not universal. Only around half a million of the oldest, poorest, and most sober elderly people obtained a pension, which was less than a bare subsistence income. (Tanner, 1900) When the Liberals came to power they had no preconceived strategic plan to tackle poverty and indeed right up to the eve of the 1906 General Election Campbell-Bannerman strove to avoid committing the Party to any measures to deal with unemployment, or even old age pensions. (Hay 1975) Policies to tackle social problems once they came to power were introduced piece meal, in response to economic and political circumstances rather than a coherent reform package. The reforms were very limited, confused and didnt always favour the poor. Thus, they fell short of a full-scale attack on poverty. Clarke comments on the Education and Licensing Bills, which had to be scrapped as a result of opposition in the House of Lords. Pearce and Stuart went further stating many national disaster areas remained untouched the problem of slum housing for example was not tackled. (Pearce and Stewart, 1992) However, many of the Liberal reforms introduced provided the foundations for a Welfare State and paved the way for subsequent social reform. There was a fundamental shift in social attitudes to poverty and welfare as they convinced people that governments should help the poor and needy. This was a significant achievement for the Liberal Administration, which should not be underestimated. The policies introduced were also successful in helping to alleviate poverty. The measures to introduce medical inspections and school meals argues Murray made a significant impact by 1914 over 14 million meals per annum were being provided for 158,000 children the 1907 Act did not compel Local Authorities to set up clinics but by 1914 most were providing medical treatment for children. Murray concludes the social reforms of the pre-war Liberal government had no opportunity to make a major dent in the extreme poverty before the Great War, but there is some evidence to suggest they began to make a di fference in the longer term. (Murray, 1999) In conclusion, the nature and success of the Liberal reforms has been the subject of keen historical debate and almost unparalleled scrutiny, resulting in many conflicting views. It cannot be denied there was scope for more radical reform. However, when taking in to account the contemporary, social values and norms, political climate, and the argument of the state versus individual responsibility this was a bold attempt by the Liberal Administration to introduce radical reform. Such reforms helped to alleviate poverty and paved the way for future reforms, even though the Governments motivation may at times have been based upon expediency and was not always entirely principled or purist. 1 This and the following statistics were taken from the Natioanl statistics website. 2 The Taff Vale judgement prevented Unions from picketing and any union could be liable to pay unlimited damages for losses caused by a strike. 3 Charles Booth and Seebohm Rowntree, undertook major investigations into the extent and causes of poverty in British cities. They discovered that up to 30% of the population of the cities were living in or below poverty levels and the conditions were such that people could not pull themselves out of poverty by their own actions alone. Booth and Rowntree both identified the main causes of poverty as being illness, unemployment and old age. 4 Charles Booth published, Life and Labour of People in London in 1889 and Seeboh Rowntree published, Poverty A study of Town Life in 1901. 5 The Boer War was an attempt by the British to re-impose its control over Southern Africa, and when Britain put pressure on the Boers they had little option other than to fight. The British public expected the war to be over in a few weeks as the Boers were inexperienced and badly equipped. However the defeat of 50,000 Boers took 450,00 British troops and before the end, it cost 22,000 lives and well over Ã ¯Ã ¿Ã ½200,000,000 of money. 6 The National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children (NSPCC). Bibliography From George III to George VI A brief history of Britain from 1760 to 1952 (S. Reed Brett) An illustrated history of modern Britain 1783 1964 (Denis Richards and J.W. Hunt) The origins of the Liberal Welfare reforms 1906-1914 (J.R Hay) Heinemann Advanced History: Poverty and Public Health 1815-1948 (Rosemary Rees) Access to History: Britain 1895-1918 (Mike Byrne) Life and Labour of People in London (Charles Booth 1889) Poverty A study of town life (Seebohm Rowntree 1901) www.LearningCurve.gov.uk www.nationalachieves.gov.uk http://www.nedrichards.com/docs/libsocref.pdf www.lednum.wordpress.com/2006/09/07/the-liberal-reforms-of-1906-1914/ www.liberalhistory.org.uk www.en.wikipedia.org www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk www.politics.co.uk www.statistics.gov.uk
Sunday, July 21, 2019
Industrial Espionage Intelligence The information revolution and the advances in technology during the past decades has brought to fore many challenges and issues to both governments and businesses, the age-old crime of espionage or the practice of spying to gather secret information is one the most potential issues facing information-based societies such as the United States, today. Although, much has been documented as fact and fiction concerning the traditional foreign agents and spies, in todays world of multi-national, multi-billion dollar corporations, and industrial espionage is a growing danger. Furthermore, this is aggravated by the fact that many large businesses are physically disseminated which has distributed management and administration, and more job specialization. High technology offers the ability to collect and use information for competitive edge over others in meeting business and government objectives, it also makes modern information and technology-based nations and businesses vulnerable as information can be stolen from electronic storage media and transmitted in seconds without even physically removing the data. The paper attempts to examine and understand the challenge of espionage to industries and businesses in America. However, in doing so, it shall also look at the historical development of espionage and examines how the advances in technology in the recent years have facilitated the act of espionage, and also the measures that may prove useful in controlling Industrial Espionage. As a prelude to the research, it may be worthwhile to understand how industrial espionage is defined, its nature and implications. Industrial Espionage Definition and Nature The Federal Bureau of Investigation defines industrial espionage as Ã¢â¬Å"an individual or private business entity sponsorship or coordination of intelligence activity conducted for the purpose of enhancing their advantage in the marketplace.Ã¢â¬ [Cited Boni and Kovacich, 2000; p. 48] While this definition may imply Industrial Espionage to be more or less the same as business or competitive intelligence, John F Quinn explains the essential difference between the two while business intelligence is generally under private sponsorship using an Ã¢â¬Å"openÃ¢â¬ methodology, espionage may be either government or privately sponsored and clandestine. [Cited Boni and Kovacich, 2000; p. 47] My definition of Industrial Espionage is it is the process of collecting information and data for the purpose of generating revenue. Generating revenue is very important aspect for these people. They are not thrill seeker, if the compensation does not justify the reward they will not bother attempting to collect the required information. Individuals who commit Industrial Espionage are not looking for information for information sake, but for information that will produce a big payday when acquired by a second party or when the information is viewed by unauthorized personnel the value of the information is no longer valuable. Money and power are motivators and the stakes in todays billion dollar business environment the rewards far exceeds risks. In the highly competitive and globalized business environment, proprietary intellectual property and economic information is considered the most valuable commodity by all nations, particularly the advanced ones. Businesses and/or governments involve in espionage activities for the purpose of unlawfully or clandestinely obtaining sensitive financial, trade or economic policy information, proprietary/sensitive economic information; or critical technologies including but not limited to data, plans, tools, mechanisms, compounds, designs, formulae, processes, procedures, programs, codes or commercial strategies, whether tangible or intangible, for competitive business advantage. The proprietary information so stolen may have been stored, compiled or memorialised physically, electronically, graphically, photographically or in writing and may be reasonably protected by the owner and not available to the general public. [Boni and Kovacich, 2000; p. 48] Proprietary information may be stolen by employees accessing the business and company databases, hackers breaking into the company server, or sponsored teams of burglars. While companies may lose vital business information through employees leaving the job, espionage occurs when the employee willfully looks for the data, steals it, copies it and sells it for money, or for his own unit, when he intends to produce a similar item. Espionage by competitors involve spying the activities of other businesses and unlawfully gathering of secret information, so that they can steer their businesses by adopting appropriate strategies and stay at par with, if not ahead of, competition in the marketplace. Interested outsiders and competitors adopt many methods including bribery, detective spying through shady agencies, searching through garbage, also referred to as Ã¢â¬Ëdumpster diving, scams to trick workers through Ã¢â¬Ësocial engineering, or even expose loopholes and weak points in the live s of workers and blackmail them for gathering information. The theft or unlawful receipt of intellectual property and economic information, particularly by competitors and foreign governments threatens the development and production of goods derived from such information and also results in loss of profits, market share and perhaps the business itself and may thereby result in the weakening of the economic power of ones country. [Boni and Kovacich, 2000] In the present information-driven business environment, businesses tend to address the threat seriously, and in their quest to gain power, maintain control, increase market share and beat competition, nations and businesses espouse espionage, treating it casually and engaging themselves in espionage, using information and technology as armaments of business and economic warfare. [Jones, Kovacich and Luzwick, 2002] The Process The process of Industrial Espionage can be divided into four categories: requirements, collection, analysis, and evaluation. First, the requirements have to be established. This is when the individual is targeted and approached to provide specific information concerning a specific job or task within a company or organization. Most often a third party will inquire to protect the inquiring person, organization, or corporation from liability. Most companies focus their espionage efforts only on certain task or functions. The second phase allows the collector to focus their efforts. Collection is the key component of Industrial Espionage. This is the key element for payment and has the most risk involved. These individuals must evaluate the risk of obtaining the needed information or data with the value of the fee that they will be paid and the risks of being caught. The individual collecting/obtaining the information may use any of the following to obtain the required information/data: physical attacks, electronic attacks, or even attacks against the employees to gain the necessary information. If the rewards are so great (finically), they will go to whatever lengths necessary to obtain the information, even murder if necessary. If the request is for a working copy of a companys product the Collector might simply have to go out and by one, then send away for the technical information any customer is entitled to. While this might see strange use of a Collector, remember some of the companies collecting information exist in embargoed nations such as Cuba or Iraq where state of the art US product are not readily available. If the request is for the complete production data for a complex computer chip the job might entail illegal, and therefore more risky, methods such as bribery or burglary. Analysis follows. Now that a Collector has accumulated a mass of data and information they must take time to see what they have. This entails everything from reading the contents of documents, both physical and electronic, processing raw data, and in some cases looking at the flow of employees and information to see what might be happening and where it is occurring. Once the data has been analyzed the Collector refers to the original Requirement to see if he has meet his goals. This is the Evaluation phase. If the clients Requirements have been met the information is package, transmitted, and the Collector paid. Extra information collected is evaluated for value to the current of future clients and recorded for future transactions. In those cases where the Requirements have not been met, the Collector uses the information to return to the Collection Phase, thus beginning the process anew. Espionage A Brief History The technological advances and the global Internet have drastically reformed the art of espionage. The practice of espionage has transformed revolutionarily over the years, as any aspect of life and civilization, from the old manual and human intensive profession to the sophisticated, hi-tech pursuit of stealing electronic information in networked societies. Toffler and Heidi provide a Three Wave Evolution model to explain the technological evolution, as well as the evolution of espionage. [Toffler, 1980; Toffler Heidi, 1994] Accordingly, during the First Wave period, extending from the beginning of human race to about mid 1700s and characterized by the agricultural revolution, information was passed by word of mouth or in written correspondence. The theft of information was minimal as most of the people could not read or write and espionage was manual, relying mostly on personal observation and one-to-one contact. The Second Wave or the Ã¢â¬Ërise of the industrialized civilization, which followed and last until a few years after World War II, experienced exponential growth in communications and the sharing of information, made possible by such inventions as telegraph, telephone and computers. The later years of this period saw the development and use of cryptography as communication protection and anti-espionage tool, though essentially by governments. While businesses had also begun to use computers, most of the systems were stand-alone and hence the threat of espionage was limited. Espionage was thou ght of primarily as a government and/or military problem and anti-espionage measures during the period essentially consisted of some form of physical security of physical documents and equipment, such as combination of locks, guards, alarms and fences. Emphasis was also placed on personnel security hiring honest and ethical employees in computer field was deemed to limit espionage threats. As only few people operated computers, the threat to electronically stored information was limited. [Toffler, 1980; Toffler and Heidi, 1994] The Third Wave or the age of technology and information, sweeping the world today has seen more advances in communication and information sharing, and paradoxically more threats, than the First and Second Wave periods combined. While the Internet and the globally linked communication systems serve as a mainstream business medium, objectionable reports on how high-tech criminals in businesses and government intelligence agencies of all advanced nations are exploiting the possibilities of the cyber world to meet their various ends, continue to be appal the world conscience. Today, a large number of organizational actors and individual information-brokers sponsored by government and otherwise, are using the Internet to commit the old crime of espionage in a revolutionary new way what Boni and Kovacich terms the Ã¢â¬Ënetspionage or network enabled espionage. According to them, in the present information-driven globalized society, the distinction between espionage motivated wholly by m ilitary advantage and the quest for market domination is blurred of not completely eliminated. The researchers claim that the 21st century, envisaged as Ã¢â¬Ëthe Ã¢â¬Å"Information AgeÃ¢â¬ or the Ã¢â¬Å"Age of TechnologyÃ¢â¬ to be may instead come to be known as the Ã¢â¬Å"Age of Netspionage Agent and Techno-Spy.Ã¢â¬ [Boni and Kovacich, 2000; p. 5] Before attempting to understand the occurrence of industrial espionage in America, it may be vital to understand the techniques used by the modern espionage Netspionage agents and techno-spies so that adequate and effective measures could be adopted to prevent the threat of espionage. Some of the common methods used by Netspionage agents include: Data Diddling changing data before or during entry into the computer Scavenging Obtaining information left around a computer system and in trash cans Data Leakage Removing information by smuggling it out as part of the printed document Piggybacking/ Impersonation Physical access to electronic data using anothers User ID and password to gain computer access and protected information. Simulation and Modelling Using the computer as a tool to plan and/or control a criminal act Wire Tapping Tapping into a computers communication links to be able to read the information being transmitted between systems and networks [Boni and Kovacich, 2000; p. 58] Apart from the above, the use of software application programs, which are standardized over the years enable the use of a variety of hacker tools including Trojan Horse enabling covert placement of instructions in the program for unauthorized functions; Trap Doors for inserting debugging aids that provide breaks in the instructions for insertion of additional code and intermediate output capabilities; Logic Bombsor programs executed at a specific time period; and the common Computer Virus which are malicious codes that cause damage to the system information. [Boni and Kovacich, 2000; p. 59] The Cyber Threat With the advent of the cyber age where information roams free along the electronic corridors of the Internet at the speed of light, another arena has been opened up to the Collector. The tools used are those developed by Hackers and Crackers over the years coupled with the good old social engineering of days past. The potential for gathering information is unlimited. The arena, of course, is the World Wide Web and the target sits on your disk as you view this HTML document. In 1997 it was estimated there were fewer than 1000 people that qualified as Professional Hackers. That is, people who are capable of creating tools or developing original methods for Hacking.  Therefore it is safe to assume there are very few Collectors who are true computer geniuses. Collectors are just individuals adept at turning existing tools toward collecting information. An excellent Hackers Toolkit (a software package which contains scripts, programs, or autonomous agents that exploit vulnerabilities ) can be downloaded from the internet with just a few hours of searching. Converting computer tools to information collection is relatively easy, because with computers everything is information and everything created for a computer collects and/or transmits information to one degree or another. Corporate web sites hold increasingly detailed information regarding a companys structure, products, employees, and the physical layout of its facilities. Some sites boast fly thr ough tours of their facilities, pictures and bios of their executive officers, telephone numbers, and of course email addresses of key employees. The sole purpose of these web sites is to transmit the information to anyone who asks. Web browsers collect this information and provide it to the requestor who can view and store the information, as they desire. This type of information is invaluable to individuals who choose to exploit it as a means to collect further information. With the wealth of information freely available in todays on-line environment Collectors can do much of their preliminary research without leaving the comfort of their own home or breaking a single law. Armed with the freely available information Collectors are now prepared use the net to gather even more information. With the bios and names of executives and key employees they can search the net for their favorite electronic haunts. Spoofing can then be used. Spoofing is defined as masquerade by assuming the appearance of a different entity in network communications.  Emails or ICQ addresses can be spoofed, sent with the Collector poising as an investor, potential customer, a reporter, or even a student researching the rising stars of the corporate world. After receiving replies, Email spoofing can be further used to appear as someone in authority within the corporation who can direct mailing of information, the establishment of computer access accounts, and even grant greater access for established accounts. All of these gives the collector access to just a little bit more of the corporation and its secrets, all with minimal exposure of the collector and sets the stage for furt her attacks. These can range from accessing an unsecured port for downloading files, to exploiting any one of a number of known security holes to gain root access to a system. A good example of the potential for Cyber Industrial Espionage comes from a New York Times report that claimed Reuters Analytics, Inc. hired a Collector to steal the underlying software and codes for their rivals, Bloomberg, L.P, data terminals. Though Reuters had a head start in the industry, Bloombergs product was considered superior. Yearly sales of these data terminals exceeds $6.5 Billion.  By mixing Mundane and Cyber techniques collectors can multiply the effects of their collection efforts. The routine of the office, gathered by watching, can enable the collector to plan physical break-ins of the building. While roaming the halls of the corporation they can steal trade secrets, clone drives of key employees, and even set in place login captures, all acts that could go totally undetected because it does no involve the removal of a single piece of property. Well planned daytime entries over lunch the lunch hour can allow the informed collector time clone disks, copy key files, or even send emails from key employees desks to set into motion chains of events to leak information or disrupt company performance. Collectors can make use of internal networks to transmit the documents outside the building to avoid security. Industrial Espionage in America The United States being the most dominant economic power in the world today is also a major target of espionage. In 1988, the FBI accused a former Amgen Inc. researcher of peddling secret documents concerning the wonder drug Epogen. In 1989, U.S. agents tracked down three moles working at an IBM affiliate in France after they supposedly botched a sale of confidential documents. [Cited Crock, 1997] The massive information technology infrastructure enables businesses and industries to tap proprietary and secret information of competitors to gain control of the global market place. Research suggests that the threat of espionage and the loss of proprietary/sensitive information have hit the manufacturing industries particularly hard. As the R D expenses for manufacturing companies are costly, some companies, foreign or domestic, are tempted to catch up even if through unlawful means. [Naef, 2003] Industrial espionage is rampant in the United States according to the FBI, of the 173 world nations, 57 were actively running operations targeting the U.S. companies; about 100 countries spent some portion of their funds targeting U.S. technologies. [Boni and Kovacich, 2000; p. 50] A survey conducted by PricewaterhouseCoopers and the American Society for Industrial Security revealed that Fortune 1000 companies lost more than $45 billion in 1999 due to theft of their proprietary information alone. The study finds that Ã¢â¬Å"although manufacturing reported only 96 incidents, the acknowledged losses of manufacturing companies accounted for the majority of losses reported in the survey, and averaged almost $50 million per incident.Ã¢â¬ [Cited Naef, 2003] While current and former employees, suppliers and customers are considered to be responsible for 70 to 80% of proprietary/sensitive information losses, an unidentified survey suggests that 21 percent of attempted or actual thefts of proprietary/sensitive information occurred in overseas locations. [Boni and Kovacich, 2000; p. 50] It is significant to note that the U.S is not only a target of espionage, but also actively indulge in espionage activities themselves. The US government has admitted using commercial espionage phone calls were illegally tapped to determine that a French competitor of a US firm was bribing Brazilian officials to obtain an air traffic control radar contract; it was later revealed that the US firm was also bribing officials. It is generally believed that large intelligence agencies of developed nations are involved in the practice of espionage. A commission of the European Parliament suspects that ECHELON, a communications espionage system operated by the U.S. National Security Agency and agencies of the United Kingdom, Germany, Canada, Australia and New Zealand, is used for political espionage and occasionally to help American companies against European competitors. [Vest, 1998] Economic Espionage Act of 1996 Economic and industrial espionage present many challenges to many American companies as rampant information breaches are costing companies substantial sums of money. While corporations and businesses often do not report espionage incidents to law enforcement, the Federal government today recognizes industrial and economic espionage as a crime; the Congress has legislated the Economic Espionage Act of 1996 in an attempt to aid companies to protect themselves from espionage. Section 19831 punishes the theft, misappropriation, wrongful alteration and delivery of trade secrets when accused parties intended to, or knew that their misconduct would benefit a foreign government, instrumentality or agent. The Act allows for legal action regarding Ã¢â¬Å"financial, business, scientific, engineering, technical and economic information,Ã¢â¬ if a company can demonstrate it has attempted to keep this information classified and protected. The prescribed maximum punishment for an individual offen der is 15 years imprisonment, $ 500,000 fine or both; for an organization the fine is $10 million. [Kelley, 1997] It is understood that many companies dont take advantage of the Act; companies safely exploit the law in full knowledge when news of the breach is known publicly. However, as Naef observes, if the trade secret theft is not publicly known, a company may have to meticulously assess the advantages and disadvantages of suing another company and thereby going public as news of the theft may damage the companys reputation. [Naef, 2003] Yet, cases of industrial and economic espionage have been reported since the enactment of the Act, though scantily. In September 2003 one man was pled guilty of copying trade secrets as defined under the Economic Espionage Act of 1996; the case was the first of its kind in Northern California. The US Attorneys office later publicized that Say Lye Ow, a 31 year old originally from Malaysia, copied sensitive information on Intels first 64-bit processor when he left the company in 1998. [Naef, 2003] Industrial Espionage and Corporate Vulnerability It is often the failure of corporations to adequately protect their information resources that makes them vulnerable to espionage. The vulnerability and the nonchalant attitude of companies are by no means excusable, given the economic implications of the threat of espionage as well as the weakening of the economic power of the subject nation. It may be worthwhile, perhaps vital, to understand the reasons for the vulnerability of corporations in order to prevent espionage and the resulting economic losses to businesses. Businesses make themselves vulnerable to espionage for a variety of reasons, including: Proprietary/sensitive business information not identified Proprietary information not adequately protected Computer and telecommunication systems not adequately protected Lack of or inadequate policies and procedures Employees not aware of their responsibilities Management attitude of Ã¢â¬Å" We dont have proprietary or sensitive informationÃ¢â¬ and/or Ã¢â¬Å"It cant happen to usÃ¢â¬ [Boni and Kovacich, 2000; p. 50] These factors along with such other threats as increasing miscreants trying to steal information for money and the vulnerabilities of systems on the Internet facilitating information theft on a global scale present pervasive threat to information worth protecting as well as challenge managers, security personnel and law enforcement officials responsible for safety and security of information. Employees, a Threat or Defence Whether called Social Engineering, as in most Hacker manuals, or HUMINT (Human Intelligence), as the Department of Defense refers to it, your employees are targets of Collectors. People are a two-edged weapon in securing your corporate secrets being both the best protection, and the biggest risk. Proper training, education, and motivation can give people the tools and desire to keep your corporate secrets safe. Conversely, appealing to the vanity, greed, or vengeful nature of disenchanted or bored people has always been a tool of the traditional spy. Now these appeals can be made with protection of the electronic web. After gathering sufficient information on employees the Collector can choose his target. If the individual bites, a face to face meeting can be scheduled, if not the only thing that can be turned over the security is an email address or ICQ number, all easily disposed of with no trace to the Collector. Another method used to attack through your employees is to take the information gathered by Mundane and Cyber means and impersonate another individual or spoof them electronically. Calls are placed over the phone, or messages sent via email pretending to be someone with the authority to make decisions. A good choice would be one of those executive officers with the picture and bio on the corporate web page. Regardless of the role many bored or uncaring individuals will give out information to include IP addresses, system setup, and even passwords and userids over to phone when intimidated. Recruiting Insiders is another common practice among Collectors. Many publications on computer security identify the most common source of intentional disruption as authorized individuals performing unauthorized activity.  Again, much of the information on the individuals that you would like to recruit can be found in publicly accessible databases and web sites. From this, some casual research can yield those candidates who are most susceptible to bribes or extortion. Often after proper research the Collector can make his presence know to the Insider and have them make the first overtures. This allows the Collector to have some modicum of confidence the individual will no go running straight to corporate security. Insiders are the most valuable assets a Collector can have. They have the time and freedom to search peoples desks, read private memos, copy documents, and abuse coworker friendships.  The threat does not end when the Insider leaves the corporation either. In 1992 se veral General Motors employees were accused of taking over 10,000 documents and disks containing GM trade secrets when they defected to Volkswagen. GM sued and in 1997 received a payment of $100 million from Volkswagen.  Inserting Agents is one of the least risky forms of Industrial Espionage. The Collector handpicks the individual who they intend to insert. They provide the training, background story, and decide at which level to attempt to insert the individual. Once hired, even in a position of limited access, the individual becomes a trusted Insider for the Collector, able to provide increasing levels of access and perform some of the Mundane and Cyber attacks from within the corporation with minimum threat of being caught. Preventing Industrial Espionage While legal measures and legislations that send strong messages against espionage can be effective in preventing its occurrence, the role and responsibility of corporations is crucial. Even as companies take a non-serious approach to espionage, there is little debate that companies should guard themselves effectively against the Ã¢â¬Ëinfo-thieves, both insiders and those unleashed by outsiders, who try to get secrets by all possible means. Measures that may help companies to prevent espionage include: Conducting a survey of risk assessment, and identifying potential risk areas, Developing a security policy without much of safety risks. Frequently evaluating the security policy and procedures and modify if necessary Classifying and marking sensitive and valuable information Isolating information that should never fall into the hands of a competitor Detecting the vulnerable areas that could be exploited by a competitor Controlled storage of sensitive information Controlled destruction of materials Executing Nondisclosure Agreements for employees, vendors and contractors Securing computer systems and networks by installing appropriate information system security products Monitoring email and Internet use [Winkler, 1997; Boni and Kovacich, 2000] While the above methods may be useful in protecting against espionage, central to controlling the industrial espionage is security awareness and training of employees as one of the major points of vulnerability is spying activities by people belonging to the same organization. Ã¢â¬Å"Security awareness and training programs can serve to inform employees about their organizations information security policy, to sensitize them to risks and potential losses, and to train them in the use of security practices and technologiesÃ¢â¬ [Denning, 1998, p.382]. By investing in security procedures and training, corporations may train employees in the areas of personnel, cyberspace and physical security; they can also be made aware of their responsibilities regarding information security of the organization. Conclusion The increasing value of trade secret information in the global and domestic marketplace and the possibilities of the information technology revolution have resulted in a significant rise in espionage activities in the recent years, particularly against the U.S. being the most dominant economic power in the world. While legislations may be useful in preventing the crime of industrial and economic espionage, the onus is largely on corporations to implement adequate security policies and measures to protect themselves from business losses as well as prevent the weakening of the economic power of their country. References 1. Boni W. Kovacich G.L. (2000) Netspionage: The Global Threat to Information MA: Butterworth- Heinemann 2. Crock, S. (1997) Ã¢â¬Å"Business Spies: The New Enemy Within?Ã¢â¬ Book Review: War By Other MeansÃ¢â¬ Economic Espionage in America By John J. Fialka Business Week Available at: http://www.businessweek.com/1997/06/b351325.htm Accessed 02/26/06 3. Denning, D. E. (1998) Information Warfare and Security MA: Addison-Wesley 4. Jones A. Kovacich G.L. Luzvick P.G. (2002) Global Information Warfare: How Businesses, Governments and Others Achieve Objectives and At